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Mathew 1-7 Commentaries- part 1 by Archbishop Uwe AE.Rosenkranz, MA,D.D


Mathew 1-7
The Life of Jesus

Matthew 1–7
A Commentary on Matthew 1–7

by Ulrich Luz

Translated by
James E. Crouch

Edited by
Helmut Koester

Press Minneapolis

Matthew 1–7
A Commentary on Matthew 1–7

Copyright © 2007 Fortress Press, an imprint of Augsburg Fortress

All rights reserved. Except for brief quotations in critical articles or reviews, no part of this book may be reproduced in any manner without prior written permission from the publisher. Write: Permissions, Augsburg Fortress, Box 1209, Minneapolis, MN 55440.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Luz, Ulrich.
[Evangelium nach Matthäus. English]
Matthew 1–7: a commentary / by Ulrich Luz; translated by James E. Crouch; volume editor, Helmut Koester.—[Rev. ed.].
p. cm.—(Hermeneia—a critical and historical commentary on the Bible)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN-13: 978-0-8006-6099-4
ISBN-10: 0-8006-6099-4
1. Bible. N.T. Matthew I–VII—Commentaries. I. Koester, Helmut, 1926– II. Title.
BS2575.53.L8913 2007

■ For Salome

—A Critical
and Historical
on the Bible

Old Testament Editorial Board
Peter Machinist, Harvard University, chair
Klaus Baltzer, University of Munich
Sidnie White Crawford, University of Nebraska
Paul D. Hanson, Harvard University
Thomas Krüger, University of Zurich
S. Dean McBride Jr., Union Theological Seminary in Virginia
Frank Moore Cross, Harvard University, emeritus

New Testament Editorial Board
Helmut Koester, Harvard University, chair
Harold W. Attridge, Yale University
Adela Yarbro Collins, Yale University
Eldon Jay Epp, Case Western Reserve University
Hans-Josef Klauck, University of Chicago
James M. Robinson, Claremont Graduate University, emeritus

The Author
Ulrich Luz was born in 1938, and he studied theology in Zürich and Göttingen under Hans Conzelmann, Eduard Schweizer, and Gerhard Ebeling. He taught at the International Christian University in Tokyo (1970–1971), at the University of Göttingen (1972–1980), and at the University of Bern in Switzerland (1980–2003). Now he is professor emeritus. He received honorary degrees from the universities of Leipzig, Budapest, Sibiu, Lausanne, Praha, and Nishinomiya and served as president of the Societas Novi Testamenti Studiorum in 1998. He is the author of numerous books, including Das Geschichtsverständnis des Paulus (1968), Matthew in History: Interpretation, Influence and Effects (1994), and The Theology of the Gospel of Matthew (1995), and editor of Die Mitte des Neuen Testaments: Einheit und Vielfalt neutestamentlicher Theologie (1983). He and his wife, Salome Keller, have three children.
Matthew 1–7
Editor’s Note
Preface to the First Edition
Preface to the Hermeneia Edition
Translator’s Preface
Reference Codes

1. Sources and Abbreviations
2. Text-Critical Sigla
3. Short Titles of All Commentaries and of Studies and Articles Often Cited
■ Introduction

1 Structure and Basic Character of Matthew’s Story of Jesus
1.1 Basic Problems
1.2 Structuring Methods
1.3 Overall Plan

2 Genre and Intention of the Gospel
2.1 Genre
2.2 Matthew’s Narrative as Communication with the Readers

3 Sources

4 Style
4.1 Syntax
4.2 Matthew’s Preferred Vocabulary
4.3 Words Avoided in Matthew

5 Evangelist’s Relationship to His Sources
5.1 Matthew as Heir of Mark and the Sayings Source
5.1.1 The Linguistic Relationship to Mark and Q
5.1.2 The Theological Relationship to Mark and Q
5.2 Matthew as an Exponent of His Community
5.2.1 Grounding in Worship
5.2.2 Matthew and His Church’s Scribes

6 The Historical Situation of the Gospel of Matthew
6.1 The Gospel of Matthew—a Jewish Christian Gospel
6.2 The Position of the Gospel of Matthew in the History of Jewish Christianity
6.3 The Position of the Matthean Churches in Judaism
6.4 The Situation within the Community
6.5 Place of Writing
6.6 Time of Writing
6.7 Author

7 Text

8 On the Intention of This Commentary and on the Hermeneutical Significance of the History of the Text’s Influence (Wirkungsgeschichte)
■ Commentary
Heading (1:1*)

I Prelude (1:2–4:22*)

A Infancy Narratives (1:2–2:23*)
1 Genealogy (1:2–17*)
2 Birth, Endangerment, and Rescue of the Messianic Child (1:18–2:23*)
2.1 Immanuel (1:18–25*)
2.2 The Gentiles before the King of the Jews (2:1–12*)
2.3 Flight to Egypt and Move to Nazareth (2:13–23*)

Excursus: The Fulfillment Quotations

B The Beginning of Jesus’ Activity (3:1–4:22*)
1 John the Baptist (3:1–17*)
1.1 The Baptist’s Call to Israel to Repent (3:1–12*)
1.2 The Revelation of the Righteous Son of God (3:13–17*)

Excursus: Righteousness (δικαιοσύνη)

Excursus: Son of God

2 The Authentication of the Son of God in Temptation (4:1–11*)
3 The Beginning of the Community in Galilee (4:12–22*)
3.1 Jesus in Galilee of the Gentiles (4:12–17*)
3.2 The Call of the Disciples at the Sea of Galilee (4:18–22*)

Excursus: Disciple (μαθητής)

II Jesus’ Activity in Israel in Word and Deed (4:23–11:30*)

Introductory Overview (4:23–25*)

Excursus: Preaching, Teaching, and Gospel in Matthew

A The Sermon on the Mount (5:1–7:29*)
1 Introduction (5:1–16*)
1.1 Jesus Goes up onto the Mountain (5:1–2*)
1.2 The Beatitudes (5:3–12*)
1.3 “You are the salt of the earth …” (5:13–16*)
2 The Main Part (5:17–7:12*)
2.1 Preface (5:17–20*)
2.2 Better Righteousness, I: Antitheses (5:21–48*)
2.2.1 First Antithesis: On Killing (5:21–26*)
2.2.2 Second Antithesis: On Adultery (5:27–30*)
2.2.3 Third Antithesis: On Divorce (5:31–32*)
2.2.4 Fourth Antithesis: On Swearing (5:33–37*)
2.2.5 Fifth Antithesis: On Nonviolence (5:38–42*)
2.2.6 Sixth Antithesis: On Loving the Enemy (5:43–48*)
2.3 Better Righteousness, II: Attitude toward God (6:1–18*)
2.3.1 On Almsgiving, Praying, and Fasting (6:1–6*, 16–18*)
2.3.2 Against Babbling Prayer (6:7–8*)
2.3.3 The Lord’s Prayer (6:9–13*)
2.3.4 On the Forgiveness of Sins (6:14–15*)
2.4 Guidance for the Community (6:19–7:11*)
2.4.1 Do Not Accumulate Earthly Treasures (6:19–24*)
2.4.2 Be Concerned with the Kingdom of God (6:25–34*)
2.4.3 Do Not Judge (7:1–5*)
2.4.4 Do Not Give What Is Holy to the Dogs (7:6*)
2.4.5 Boldness in Prayer (7:7–11*)
2.5 The Golden Rule (7:12*)
3 Concluding Admonitions (7:13–29*)
3.1 The Narrow and the Wide Gate (7:13–14*)
3.2 Warning against False Prophets (7:15–23*)

Excursus: False Prophets

3.3 Conclusion: Two Builders (7:24–27*)
3.4 Conclusion of the Sermon on the Mount (7:28–29*)

Summary: The Basic Message of the Sermon on the Mount

Conclusion: Reflections on the Praxis of the Sermon on the Mount Today

1. Passages
b/ Old Testament Pseudepigrapha
c/ Qumran and Related Texts
d/ Other Jewish Literature
e/ Rabbinic Literature
g/ Early Christian Literature and the Ancient Church
h/ Greek and Latin Authors
2. Greek Words
3. Subjects
4. Authors
The name Hermeneia, Greek ἑρμηνεία, has been chosen as the title of the commentary series to which this volume belongs. The word Hermeneia has a rich background in the history of biblical interpretation as a term used in the ancient Greek-speaking world for the detailed, systematic exposition of a scriptural work. It is hoped that the series, like its name, will carry forward this old and venerable tradition. A second, entirely practical reason for selecting the name lies in the desire to avoid a long descriptive title and its inevitable acronym, or worse, an unpronounceable abbreviation.
The series is designed to be a critical and historical commentary to the Bible without arbitrary limits in size or scope. It will utilize the full range of philological and historical tools, including textual criticism (often slighted in modern commentaries), the methods of the history of tradition (including genre and prosodic analysis), and the history of religion.
Hermeneia is designed for the serious student of the Bible. It will make full use of ancient Semitic and classical languages; at the same time, English translations of all comparative materials—Greek, Latin, Canaanite, or Akkadian—will be supplied alongside the citation of the source in its original language. Insofar as possible, the aim is to provide the student or scholar with full critical discussion of each problem of interpretation and with the primary data upon which the discussion is based.
Hermeneia is designed to be international and interconfessional in the selection of authors; its editorial boards were formed with this end in view. Occasionally the series will offer translations of distinguished commentaries which originally appeared in languages other than English. Published volumes of the series will be revised continually, and eventually, new commentaries will replace older works in order to preserve the currency of the series. Commentaries are also being assigned for important literary works in the categories of apocryphal and pseudepigraphical works relating to the Old and New Testaments, including some of Essene or Gnostic authorship.
The editors of Hermeneia impose no systematic-theological perspective upon the series (directly, or indirectly by selection of authors). It is expected that authors will struggle to lay bare the ancient meaning of a biblical work or pericope. In this way the text’s human relevance should become transparent, as is always the case in competent historical discourse. However, the series eschews for itself homiletical translation of the Bible.
The editors are heavily indebted to Fortress Press for its energy and courage in taking up an expensive, long-term project, the rewards of which will accrue chiefly to the field of biblical scholarship.
The editor responsible for this volume is Helmut Koester of Harvard University.

Peter Machinist Helmut Koester
For the Old Testament For the New Testament
Editorial Board Editorial Board
Editor’s Note
The appearance of Matthew 1–7 completes the English publication of Ulrich Luz’s commentary on the Gospel of Matthew. This English edition is a translation of the thoroughly revised fifth German edition of volume 1 of Professor Luz’s commentary; it thus supersedes the English translation of an earlier version of volume 1 published in the Continental Commentary series (Fortress Press, 1989). Volumes 2 and 3 of the English commentary (representing volumes 2–4 in German) have previously been published in Hermeneia.
The English translation of the Greek text of the Gospel of Matthew is based on the German translation by Professor Luz and reflects his exegetical decisions. Other biblical texts are usually quoted from the New Revised Standard Version. Quotations of Latin and Greek authors, except where otherwise noted, follow the texts and translations of the Loeb Classical Library or other standard editions.
The endpapers show facing pages from Codex Schøyen (MS 2650), a fourth-century Coptic manuscript of the Gospel of Matthew from the Schøyen Collection (Oslo and London), containing Matthew 6:5–19* (front) and Matthew 6:19–31* (end). The variants in this manuscript are sufficient to suggest that it may represent the Coptic translation of a different form of Matthew than the canonical Gospel (see p. 60).
Preface to the First Edition
It is with relief and gratitude that I release the first volume of “Matthew.” A sympathetic colleague from another discipline once told me that writing a major commentary on a New Testament book these days is probably the penitential exercise par excellence. He was thinking of the flood of secondary literature that increasingly proves to be more than a hindrance to scholarly communication and especially keeps one from dealing with the text itself. For the most part I have not found that to be the case. I have always experienced the text to be so supportive and so fascinating that without any effort it kept me involved. Indeed, the commentary is probably the literary genre that expresses most directly that we exegetes are indebted to our texts for everything we are and that we are to serve them in everything we do. Thus I am thankful that I have been able to write a commentary.
Admittedly, I too am uncomfortable with its length. It results not so much from the immensely swollen secondary literature as from the concept that lies behind this commentary. First of all, I am convinced that a commentary that not only explains biblical texts but also aids in their understanding is not permitted simply to remain in the past; it must also draw lines into the present. In the second place, I am convinced that the history of the text’s influence can make a significant contribution here. After the text itself, I am probably most indebted to the church fathers and to the Protestant and Catholic exegesis of the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries. In a remarkable way their exegesis deals not only with the words but also with the substance of the texts. In the third place, there lies behind this commentary the conviction (or, perhaps, the hope!) that pastors and priests regularly have to struggle at their desks with the substance of their texts if they are not quickly to suffer from preacher’s burnout. I am quite aware that these days it is more likely the exception than the rule when the pastor does this kind of work with biblical texts. It falls victim not so much to scholarly work in other areas as to the hectic life of the pastorate, and it happens, in my opinion, to the detriment of our churches. I have written this commentary primarily for priests, pastors and teachers of religion. One wonders whether it will help them engage in an intensive conversation with the texts in their study or whether its length will actually keep them from such a conversation. I would rather have a response to this question than to read all the critical reviews.
There remains the pleasant duty of expressing thanks. This kind of book is not created without the help of others. Through the years a number of students have collaborated in tracing the history of the text’s influence: Peter Lampe, Reinhard Gorski, Andreas Karrer, Ernst Lüthi, Christian Inäbnit, Andreas Dettweiler, but especially Wolf Dietrich Köhler and Andreas Ennulat. I am indebted to the state of Lower Saxony and to the Canton of Berne for providing assistants and to the Swiss National Foundation for a temporary half-assistantship. Numerous colleagues have willingly helped me, especially church historians in whose domain I have muddled as a dilettante. I mention only one person as representative of all of them—the late Old Master, Hermann Dörries, in whose study I was able to learn so much. Joachim Gnilka, Eduard Schweizer and Hans Weder have read the manuscript and have helped it along with critical questions. Numerous students had to share in “Matthew” in lectures, seminars and seminar papers. What was it like for them? “Matthew is groovy” once appeared on a Göttingen bulletin board. To this day I still do not know what “groovy” means. Frau Karin Janecke and Frau Beata Gerber have typed the manuscript. Defaced by many only moderately successful efforts to shorten it, the manuscript was the occasion of no small amount of vexation to the publisher and printer. I thank all of them.
The dedication indicates who is most to be thanked, because it was she who suffered most whenever this commentary “consumed” me.

Ulrich Luz
Preface to the Hermeneia Edition
Compared with the earlier English edition of this commentary in Fortress Press’s Continental Commentary series, the Hermeneia edition is in many parts a new book. The desire of the Hermeneia editors to offer a new translation of the volume provided me with the occasion to rework it completely. The excellent translation offered here by Jim Crouch is based on the fifth German edition of 2002.
In this new edition the basic concept of the commentary has not changed, but it has become clearer. At many points I have sharpened my previous position or have clarified it; in a few cases I have corrected it. I have given more attention to the results of literary criticism and of sociological and reader-oriented exegeses. However, in its exegetical parts the commentary is not bound to a single methodological approach; it offers instead an attempt to integrate various methodological approaches. The basic assumption here is that the story of Jesus that Matthew reinterprets and actualizes is an approach to his communities in a totally concrete historical situation. That also opens the way to the history of the text’s influence (Wirkungsgeschichte) that I understand as consisting of all of the reflections on and receptions and actualizations of the gospel in new historical situations. This time when dealing with the history of 2:1–12* I was also able to call attention to art history. Of course, I have gone through the mass of literature that has appeared since 1984 and have incorporated it as appropriate.
The German-language reworking of chaps. 3–7 was completed in 1998, that of chaps. 1–2 and the introduction of the commentary in the summer of 2000. That also indicates the terminus ad quem up to which I was able to make use of the secondary literature. Unfortunately the additions have made the volume somewhat longer. In many sections the text is increased by as much as a third; in others it is less.
Again I owe thanks to a number of people. Axel Knauf has discovered many Hebrew errors (and other mistakes!) in the first edition. I would especially like to mention Jeannette Vuilleumin, Sarah Aebersold, and Stephan Bösiger, whose clever and sharp eyes have discovered many problems. Above all I am thankful to my translator, Jim Crouch, for the wonderful work he has done. Translating this kind of commentary means much more than simply translating. It involved, for example, finding English language editions of sources and other literature and providing the first names of authors missing in the German edition or the publishers of works cited. It was an unequalled Sisyphean task for which not only I am grateful but all American readers of this volume as well. In addition, his sharp eyes have discovered not a few errors that were overlooked in five editions of the German-language version. Also deserving special thanks are the editors of the volume, especially Helmut Koester (Harvard), and the collaborators at Fortress Press. They have all performed a wonderful work.
The dedication of the first edition is unchanged. It is for my wife, Salome, who has accompanied, supported and endured me—and that means “Matthew” as well—for more than half of her lifetime.

Ulrich Luz
Translator’s Preface
The reader of this commentary will want to note that, except for commentaries, secondary literature found in only one section of the work is not included in the “Short Titles” in the reference codes in the front pages. To avoid burdening an already long list of short titles these works are listed with full bibliographical information in the literature at the beginning of their respective sections and then cited in the footnotes with easily recognizable short titles.
Newcomers to the commentary who are not familiar with Professor Luz’s emphasis on the history of the text’s influence (Wirkungsgeschichte) would do well to begin by reading his comments in §8 of his introduction to the commentary (“On the Intention of This Commentary and on the Hermeneutical Significance of the History of the Text’s Influence”), including the comments in footnote 312 of the Introduction.

James E. Crouch
Reference Codes
1. Sources and Abbreviations

AASF Annales Academiae Scientiarum Fennicae
AB Anchor Bible
ʿAbod. Zar. ʿAbodah Zarah
ʾAbot R. Nat. ʾAbot de Rabbi Nathan
ABR Australian Biblical Review
AbrN Abr-Nahrain
Act. Thom. Acts of Thomas
Act. Pet. Acts of Peter
ACW Ancient Christian Writers
Adam and Eve Books of Adam and Eve
Dial. Dialogus
Var. hist. Varia historia
AGJU Arbeiten zur Geschichte des antiken Judentums und des Urchristentums
AGK Arbeiten zur Geschichte des Kirchenkampfes
AKG Arbeiten zur Kirchengeschichte
In Luc. Expositio in Lucam
Off. De officiis
AnBib Analecta biblica
ANET James B. Pritchard, ed., Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament (3d ed.; Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969)
ANF Ante-Nicene Fathers
ANRW Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt
Apoc. Abr. Apocalypse of Abraham
Apoc. Adam Apocalypse of Adam
Apoc. Pet. Apocalypse of Peter
APOT R. H. Charles, ed., The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament (2 vols.; Oxford: Clarendon, 1913)
B. Civ. Bella Civilia
Met. Metamorphoses
Apol. Apologia
Av. Aves
Nu. Nubes
Vesp. Vespae
Cael. De caelo
Eth. eud. Ethica eudemia
Eth. m. Ethica magna
Eth. nic. Ethica nicomachea
Part. an. De partibus animalium
Poet. Poetica
ASNU Acta seminarii neotestamentici upsaliensis
ASTI Annual of the Swedish Theological Institute
Ant. Vita Antonii
Suppl. Supplicatio
ATLA.MS American Theological Library Association—Monograph Series
Aug Augustinianum
Adult. conj. De adulterinis conjugiis
Civ. D. De civitate Dei
Cons. ev. De consensu evangelistarum
Ench. Enchiridion
In Joh. Ev. Tract. In Johannis Evangelium Tractatus
Mend. De mendacio
Nupt. concup. De nuptiis et concupiscentiis
Serm. Dom, De sermone Domini in monte
AzTh Arbeiten zur Theologie
b. Babylonian Talmud tractate
B. Batra Baba Batra
B. Meṣ Baba Meṣia
B. Qam. Baba Qamma
BAC Biblioteca de autores cristiianos
2 Bar. Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch
3 Bar. Greek Apocalypse of Baruch
Barn. Epistle of Barnabas
Reg. brev. Regulae brevius
Sanct. Christi gener. Homilia in Sanctam Christi generationem
BAW Bibliothek der Alten Welt
BAW.AC —Antike und Christentum
BBB Bonner biblische Beiträge
BBETh Beiträge zur biblischen Exegese und Theologie
BCE Before the Common Era
BDAG W. Bauer, F. W. Danker, W. F. Arndt, and F. W. Gingrich, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament (3d ed.; Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000)
BDF F. Blass, A. Debrunner, and Robert W. Funk, A Greek Grammar of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961)
Bek. Bekorot
Ber. Berakot
BBET Beiträge zur biblischen Exegese und Theologie
BEThL Bibliotheca ephemeridum theologicarum lovaniensium
BEvTh Beiträge zur evangelischen Theologie
BFCTh Beiträge zur Förderung christlicher Theologie
BGBE Beiträge zur Geschichte der biblischen Exegese
BGLRK Beiträge zur Geschichte und Lehre der reformierten Kirche
BHTh Beiträge zur historischen Theologie
BI Biblical Interpretation
Bib Biblica
BibLeb Bibel und Leben
BibS Biblische Studien (Freiburg)
BiKi Bibel und Kirche
BJRL Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester
BKV Bibliothek der Kirchenväter
BR Biblical Research
BSac Bibliotheca sacra
BSLK Bekenntnisschriften der evangelisch-lutherischen Kirche
BSRK Bekenntnisschriften der reformierten Kirche
BThSt Biblisch-theologische Studien
BThZ Berlinger theologische Zeitschrift
BTP Bibliotheca theologiae practicae
BU Biblische Untersuchungen
BVC Bible et vie chrétienne
BWANT Beiträge zur Wissenschaft vom Alten und Neuen Testament
BZ Biblische Zeitschrift
BZNW Beihefte zur ZNW
ca. circa, approximately
CBQ Catholic Biblical Quarterly
CBQMS —Monograph Series
CChr Corpus Christianorum
CChr.SG —Series Graeca
CChr.SL —Series Latina
CD Cairo (Genizah) text of the Damascus Document
CD Karl Barth, Church Dogmatics
CE the Common Era
cf. (confer = compare)
chap(s). chapter(s)
CIC Codex iuris canonici
Divin. De divinatione
Ep. ad Quint. Epistula ad Quintum fratrem
Off. De officiis
Tusc. Tusculanae disputationes
Clement of Alexandria
Ecl. proph. Eclogae propheticae
Exc. Theod. Excerpta ex Theodoto
Paed. Paedagogus
Prot. Protrepticus
Quis Div. Salv. Quis dives salvetur
Strom. Stromata
1 Clem. The First Epistle of Clement
2 Clem. The Second Epistle of Clement
ConBNT Coniectanea biblica, New Testament
Conc Concilium
Const. ap. Apostolic Constitutions
CSEL Corpus scriptorum ecclesiasticorum latinorum
CThM Calwer theologische Monographien
CThM.A —Reihe A: Bibelwissenschaft
Bon. pat. De bono patientae
Dom. or. De dominica oratione
Eleem. De opere et eleemosynis
Hab. virg. De habitu virginum
Mort. De mortalitate
Test. -Ad Qurinium testimonia adversus Judaeos
Cyril of Alexandria
Comm. in Luc. Commentarii in Lucam
Cyril of Jerusalem
Cat. myst. Catechesis mystagogica
DACL Dictionnaire d’archéologie chrétienne et de liturgie
Or. Orationes
Did. Didache
Didasc. Didascalia
Dio Chrysostom
Or. Orationes
Diogn. Epistle to Diognetus
Mat. med. Materia medica
diss. dissertation
DJD Discoveries in the Judean Desert
DS Heinrich Denzinger and Adolf Schönmetzer, eds., Enchiridion symbolorum, 36th ed. (Barcinona: Herder, 1976)
ed(s). editor(s), edited by, edition
ʿEd. ʿEduyyot
EdF Erträge der Forschung
EDNT Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, ed. Horst Balz and Gerhard Schneider (3 vols.; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1990–93)
EG Evangelisches Gesangbuch (1995 edition)
EHS.T Europäische Hochschulschriften, Theologie
EK Evangelische Kommentare
EKKNT Evangelisch-katholischer Kommentar zum Neuen Testament
Ep. epistula(ae)
Ep. Petr. ad Jac. Epistula Petri ad Jacobum (in the Pseudoclementine Homilies)
Ephraem (Ephrem)
Nat. De nativitate
Diss. Dissertationes
Ench. Enchiridion
Haer. Haereses
Ep. Arist. Epistle of Aristeas
ʿErub. ʿErubin
EstBib Estudios bíblicos
EstEcl Estudios eclesiásticos
ET English translation
EtB Études bibliques
EThL Ephemerides theologicae lovanienses
EThSt Erfurter theologische Studien
Dem. ev. Demonstratio evangelica
Hist. eccl. Historia ecclesiastica
Praep. Ev. Praeparatio evangelica
Quaest. ad Steph. Quaestiones ad Stephanum
EvTh Evangelische Theologie
FBESG Forschungen und Berichte der Evangelischen Studiengemeinschaft
FC Fathers of the Church
FGLP Forschungen zur Geschichte und Lehre des Protestantismus
frg. fragment
FRLANT Forschungen zur Religion und Literatur des Alten und Neuen Testaments
FThL Forum theologiae linguisticae
FThSt Freiburger theologische Studien
FzB Forschungen zur Bibel
GCS Griechische christliche Schriftsteller
Giṭ. Giṭṭin
Gos. Thom. Gospel of Thomas
Greg Gregorianum
Gregory of Nazianzus
Poem. Mor. Poemata moralia
Gregory of Nyssa
Beat. De beatitudinibus
Orat. Cat. M. Oratio catechetica magna
Or. Dom. De oratione dominica
Virg. De virginitate
GThA Göttinger theologische Arbeiten
GuL Geist und Leben
Ḥag. Ḥagigah
HbrMt Hebrew text of Matthew of the Shem Tov (Ibn Shaprut), 14th century (= George Howard, The Gospel of Matthew According to a Primitive Hebrew Text (Macon, Ga.: Mercer University Press, 1987)
Aeth. Aethiopica
Hermas The Shepherd of Hermas
Man. Mandate
Sim. Similitude
Vis. Vision
Op. Opera et dies
Dem. Christ. Antichr. Demonstratio de Christo et Antichristo
Ref. Refutatio omnium haeresium
HKAW Handbuch der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft
HNT Handbuch zum Neuen Testament
Hom. Homilia
Hor. Horayot
Carm. Carmina or Odes
Ep. Epistulae
Sat. Satirae
HThKNT Herders theologischer Kommentar zum Neuen Testament
HThKNTSup —Supplementband
HTR Harvard Theological Review
HWDA Handwörterbuch des deutschen Aberglaubens
Fab. Fabulae
Vit. Pyth. De vita Pythagorae
IASH Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities
IBSt Irish Biblical Studies
ICC International Critical Commentary
Eph. Letter to the Ephesians
Magn. Letter to the Magnesians
Phld. Letter to the Philadelphians
Pol. Letter to Polycarp
Rom. Letter to the Romans
Smyrn. Letter to the Smyrnaeans
Trall. Letter to the Trallians
Int Interpretation
Haer. Adversus haereses
JAC Jahrbuch für Antike und Christentum
JBL Journal of Biblical Literature
JBLMS Journal of Biblical Literature Monograph Series
Dan. Commentariorum in Danielem
Helv. Adversus Helvidium
In Jes. -Commentarii in Isaiam Prophetam
In Tit. In Titum
Pelag. Adversus Pelagium
Vir. ill. De viris illustribus
John Chrysostom
Hom. in Col. Homilies on Colossians
John of Damascus
Exp. fidei Exposition of the Orthodox Faith
Jos. Asen. Joseph and Asenath
Ant. Antiquities of the Jews
Ap. Contra Apionem
Bell. Bellum Judaicum
Vit. Vita
JQR Jewish Quarterly Review
JR Journal of Religion
JSHRZ Jüdische Schriften aus hellenistisch-römischer Zeit
JSNT Journal for the Study of the New Testament
JSNTSup Journal for the Study of the New Testament Supplement Series
JSOTSup Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement Series
JTS Journal of Theological Studies
Jub. Jubilees
Apol. Apologia
Dial. Dialogus cum Tryphone Judaeo
KBANT Kommentare und Beiträge zum Alten und Neuen Testament
Ketub. Ketubot
KlT Kleine Texte für Vorlesungen und Übungen
KP Der Kleine Pauly Lexikon der Antike (5 vols.; Stuttgart: Druckenmüller, 1964–75)
KRB Kleine Reihe zur Bibel
KTGQ Kirchen- und Theologiegeschichte in Quellen
KuD Kerygma und Dogma
LCC Library of Christian Classics
LCI Lexikon der christlichen Ikonographie
LCL Loeb Classical Library
LCO Letture cristiane delle origini
LD Lectio divina
LouvSt Louvain Studies
LSJ H. G. Liddell, R. Scott, H. S. Jones, A Greek-English Lexicon, 9th ed. with rev. supp. (Oxford: Clarendon, 1996)
LW Luther’s Works (American Edition)
LXX Septuagint
m. Mishnah tractate
Mak. Makkot
Mart. Isa. Martyrdom of Isaiah
MBTh Münsterische Beiträge zur Theologie
Meg. Megillah
Mek. Mekilta
Midr. Midrash
MThSt Marburger theologische Studien
MThZ Münchener theologische Zeitschrift
n(n). note(s)
Ned. Nedarim
NedThT Nederlands theologisch tijdschrift
Neot Neotestamentica
NF Neue Folge
NHC Nag Hammadi Codex
NHL James M. Robinson, ed., The Nag Hammadi Library in English (3d ed.; San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1988)
Nid. Niddah
no(s). number(s)
NovT Novum Testamentum
NovTSup Novum Testamentum Supplements
NPNF Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers
n.s. new series
NT New Testament
NTA New Testament Abstracts
NTAbh Neutestamentliche Abhandlungen
NTApoc Wilhelm Schneemelcher, ed., New Testament Apocrypha (trans. and ed. R. McL. Wilson; rev. ed.; 2 vols.; Louisville: Westminster/ John Knox, 1991–92)
NTF Neutestamentliche Forschungen
NTL New Testament Library
NTOA Novum Testamentum et orbis antiquus
NTS New Testament Studies
NTT Norsk Teologisk Tidsskrift
OBO Orbis biblicus et orientalis
Or. Oratio(nes)
OrChr Oriens christianus
Cels. Contra Celsum
Comm. in Ps. In Psalmos Commentarii
Hom. in Cant. Homiliae in Canticum Canticorum
Hom. in Jer. Homiliae in Jeremiam
Hom. in Lev. Homiliae in Leviticum
Hom. in Luc. Homiliae in Lucam
Hom. in Ezek. Homiliae in Ezekielem
Or. De oratione
Princ. De principiis
OT Old Testament
Ex Pont. Epistulae ex Ponto
p(p). page(s)
par(s). parallel(s)
PCB Peake’s Commentary on the Bible
Pesaḥ. Pesaḥim
Pesiq. R. Pesiqta Rabbati
Sat. Satyricon
Petrus Comestor
Hist. schol. Historia scholastica
PG Patrologia graeca = J.-P. Migne, Patrologiae cursus completes, series graeca (162 vols.; Paris: Migne, 1857–66)
Abr. De Abrahamo
Aet. mund. De aeternitate mundi
Agric. De agricultura
Cher. De cherubim
Congr. De congressu eruditionis gratia
Decal. De decalogo
Deus imm. Quod Deus sit immutabilis
Flacc. In Flaccum
Fug. De fuga et inventione
Leg. all. Legum allegoriae
Mut. nom. De mutatione nominum
Omn. prob. lib. Quod omnis probus liber sit
Op. mun. De opificio mundi
Poster. C. De posteritate Caini
Spec. leg. De specialibus legibus
Virt. De virtutibus
Vit. cont. De vita contemplativa
Vit. Mos. De vita Mosis
Hist. eccl. Historia ecclesiastica
Vit. Ap. Vita Apollonii
Pyth. Pythia
Pirqe R. El. Pirqe Rabbi Eliezer
pl. plural
PL Patrologia Latina = J.-P. Migne, Patrologiae cursus completes, series Latina (217 vols.; Paris: Migne, 1844–55)
Ap. Apologia
Gorg. Gorgias
Men. Meno
Resp. Respublica
Symp. Symposion
Tim. Timaeus
Nat. hist. Naturalis historia
Alex. De Alexandro
Mor. Moralia
Quaest. conviv. Quaestiones conviviales
Onom. Onomasticon
Phil. Letter to the Philippians
Vit. Pyth. Vita Pythagorae
Prop. Sextus Propertius
PS Patrologia Syriaca
Ps.-Clem. Hom. Pseudo-Clementine Homilies
Ps.-Clem. Rec. Pseudo-Clementine Recognitions
Ps.-Philo Pseudo-Philo
Lib. ant. bib. Liber antiquitatum biblicarum
Ps.-Phoc. Pseudo-Phocylides
Ps. Sol. Psalms of Solomon
Flor. Epistula ad Floram
PW Pauly-Wissowa, Real-Encyclopädie der classischen Alterthumswissenschaft
PWSup PW Supplement
Q Sayings Source, Q
QLk Lukan version of Q
QMt Matthean version of Q
QD Quaestiones disputatae
QFRG Quellen und Forschungen zur Reformationsgeschichte
QGT Quellen zur Geschichte der Täufer
Qidd. Qiddušin
1QapGen Genesis Apocryphon from Qumran Cave 1
1QH Thanksgiving Hymns from Qumran Cave 1
1QM War Scroll from Qumran Cave 1
1QpHab Pesher on Habakkuk from Qumran Cave 1
1QS Rule of the Community (Manual of Discipline) from Qumran Cave 1
4QMMT Miqsat Maʿaśê ha-Torah from Qumran Cave 4
4QSir Songs of Sabbath Sacrifice from Qumran Cave 4
4QTest Testimonia from Qumran Cave 4
11QMelch Melchizedek Scroll from Qumran Cave 11
11Qps The Psalms Scroll from Qumran Cave 11
11QT The Temple Scroll from Qumran Cave 11
Inst. orat. Institutio oratoria
R. Rabbi (before a name)
Rab. Rabbah (following abbreviation for biblical book)
RAC Reallexikon für Antike und Christentum
RB Revue biblique
RCB Revista de cultura bíblica
RECA Real-Encyclopädie der classischen Alterthumswissenschaft
Ref. Reformatio
RevQ Revue de Qumran
RGG Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart
RHPhR Revue de l’histoire et de philosophie religieuses
RivB Rivista biblica
RSPhTh Revue des sciences philosophiques et théologiques
RSR Recherches de science religieuse
RStT Reformationsgeschichtliche Studien und Texte
RThL Revue théologique de Louvain
RVV Religionsgeschichtliches Versuche und Vorarbeiten
Šabb. Šabbat
Sanh. Sanhedrin
SANT Studien zum Alten und Neuen Testament
SAW Studienhefte zur Altertumswissenschaft
SBFLA Studii biblici franciscani liber annuus
SBLDS Society of Biblical Literature Dissertation Series
SBS Stuttgarter Bibelstudien
SBT Studies in Biblical Theology
SC Sources chrétiennes
ScEs Science et esprit
scil. scilicet, namely: to be supplied or understood
SEÅ Svensk exegetisk årsbok
Šebu. Šebuʿot
SemSup Semeia Supplements
Ben. De beneficiis
Šeqal. Šeqalim
Serm. Sermo
Sent. Sententiae
sg. singular
SGV Sammlung gemeinverständlicher Vorträge und Schriften
SHAW Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften
Sib. Or. Sibylline Oracles
SIG Wilhelm Dittenberger, Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum (3d. ed.; 4 vols.; Leipzig: Hirzel, 1915–24)
SJ Studia Judaica
SJTh Scottish Journal of Theology
SMGH Schriften der Monumenta Germaniae Historica
SNTSMS Society for New Testament Studies Monograph Series
SNTU A Studien zum Neuen Testament und seiner Umwelt, Serie A
SNTU B Studien zum Neuen Testament und seiner Umwelt, Serie B
SO Symbolae Osloenses
Oed. Col. Oedipus coloneus
Oed. Tyr. Oedipus tyrannus
SPAW Sitzungsberichte der preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
SPAW.PH Sitzungsberichte der preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Philosophisch- Historische Klasse
SR Studies in Religion / Sciences religieuses
StEv Studia Evangelica
StLi Studia liturgica
Ecl. Ecloge
STö.T Sammlung Töpelmann—Theologie im Abriss
StPatr Studia Patristica
Str-B Hermann L. Strack and Paul Billerbeck, Kommentar zum Neuen Testament aus Talmud und Midrasch (2d ed.; 4 vols.; Munich: Beck, 1956)
StTh Studia Theologica
SUNT Studien zur Umwelt des Neuen Testaments
s.v(v). sub verbo or sub vocem under the word(s) or entry (entries)
t. Tosephta tractate
T. Abr. Testament of Abraham
T. Jac. Testament of Jacob
T. Job Testament of Job
T. 12 Patr. Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs
T. Ash. Testament of Asher
T. Benj. Testament of Benjamin
T. Gad Testament of Gad
T. Iss. Testament of Issachar
T. Jud. Testament of Judah
T. Levi Testament of Levi
T. Naph. Testament of Naphtali
T. Reub. Testament of Reuben
T. Sim. Testament of Simeon
T. Zeb. Testament of Zebulun
Taʿan. Taʿanit
Agr. Agricola
Ann. Annales
Hist. Historiae
Tanḥ. Tanḥuma
Tanḥ. B Tanḥuma (ed. Buber)
TaS Texts and Studies
TDNT G. Kittel and G. Friedrich, eds., Theological Dictionary of the New Testament (trans. G. W. Bromiley; 10 vols.; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964–76)
TEH Theologische Existenz heute
Tem. Temurah
Adv. Iud. Adversus Iudaeos
Apol. Apologeticus
Bapt. De baptismo
Cast. De exhortatione castitatis
Cult. fem. De cultu feminarum
Fuga De fuga in persecutione
Idol. De idololatria
Marc. Adversus Marcionem
Monog. De monogamia
Or. De oratione liber
Pat. De patientia
Praescr. Haer. De praescriptione haereticorum
Pud. De pudicitia
Scap. Ad Scapulam
Spect. De spectaculis
Tg(s). Targum(s)
Tg. Onq. Targum Onqelos
Tg. Yer. I Targum Yerushalmi I
Tg. Yer. II Targum Yerushalmi II
TGF Trierer Grabungen und Forschungen
ThA Theologische Arbeiten
ThBei Theologische Beiträge
ThBl Theologische Blätter
ThBü Theologische Bücherei
Or. Orationes
Idyll. Idyllia
Theodore of Mopsuestia
Fragm. Dogm. Fragmenta dogmatica
In Joh. -Commentarius in Evangelium Iohannis Apostoli
Theodoret of Cyrus
Graec. aff. cur. Graecarum affectionum curatio
Autol. Ad Autolycum
Hist. plant. Historia plantarum
ThH Théologie historique
ThHKNT Theologischer Handkommentar zum Neuen Testament
ThLZ Theologische Literaturzeitung
ThPh Theologie und Philosophie
ThQ Theologische Quartalschrift
ThR Theologische Rundschau
ThSLG Theologische Studien der (Österreichischen) Leogesellschaft
ThStK Theologische Studien und Kritiken
ThV Theologische Versuche
ThZ Theologische Zeitschrift
TLOT Ernst Jenni and Claus Westermann, eds., Theological Lexicon of the Old Testament (trans. Mark Biddle; 3 vols.; Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1997)
trans. translator
TRE Theologische Realenzyklopädie
TS Theological Studies
TSAJ Texte und Studien zum antiken Judentum
TThZ Trierer theologische Zeitschrift
TU Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristlichen Literatur
TynB Tyndale Bulletin
VC Vigiliae christianae
VD Verbum Domini
VetChr Vetera Christianorum
Vg Vulgate
Aen. Aeneid
Vit. proph. Vitae prophetarum
vol(s). volume(s)
VTSup Vetus Testamentum, Supplements
v(v). verse(s)
WA Martin Luther, Kritische Gesamtausgabe (= Weimar edition)
WdF Wege der Forschung
WMANT Wissenschaftliche Monographien zum Alten und Neuen Testament
WuD Wort und Dienst
WUNT Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament
Mem. Memorabilia
y. Jerusalem Talmud tractate
Yeb. Yebamot
ZAW Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft
ZDPV Zeitschrift des deutschen Palästina-Vereins
ZEE Zeitschrift für evangelische Ethik
ZKTh Zeitschrift für katholische Theologie
ZNW Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft
ZThK Zeitschrift für Theologie und Kirche
2. Text-Critical Sigla
א Codex Sinaiticus
’A Aquila (Greek translation of the OT)
arab Arabic
arm Armenian
B Codex Vaticanus
bo Bohairic version
Byz. Byzantine MSS
c Colbertinus (Old Latin MS)
C Codex Ephraemi
co Coptic versions (agreement of all Coptic versions)
Δ Codex Sargallensis
D Codex Bezae
f1 family 1 of Gospel minuscule MSS
f13 family 13 of Gospel minuscule MSS
geo Georgian Translation
it Old Latin version
L Codex Regius
lat Latin MSS
LXX Septuagint
M the majority text
mac Middle Egyptian Coptic textual witnesses
MS(S) manuscript(s)
MT Masoretic text
Nestle-Aland25 Eberhard Nestle, et al., eds., Novum Testamentum Graece, 25th ed. (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelstiftung, 1963)
Nestle-Aland26 Eberhard Nestle, et al., eds., Novum Testamentum Graece, 26th ed. (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelstiftung, 1979)
P. Egerton Papyrus Egerton
P. Lond. Greek Papyri in the British Museum
P. Oxy. Oxyrhynchus Papyri
Σ Symmachus (Greek translation of the OT)
sah. Sahidic
syc Curetonianus: four-Gospel MS in Old Syriac
syh Heraclensis version (Syriac)
syP Peshitta version (Syriac)
sys four-Gospel Sinaitic MS in Old Syriac
Θ Codex Washingtonianus Koridethi
TR Textus receptus
vg Old Latin and Vulgate united textual reading
Vg Vulgate
VL Vetus Latina
W Freer Codex
3. Short Titles of All Commentaries and of Studies and Articles Often Cited
Abrahams, Studies
Israel Abrahams, Studies in Pharisaism and the Gospels (2 vols.; 1917; reprinted New York: Ktav, 1967).
Hans Achelis and Johannes Flemming, eds., Die syrische Didaskalia (Leipzig: Hinrichs, 1904).
Aphraates (fl. 337–345), Homilien: aus dem Syrischen übersetzt und erläutert (ed. Georg Bert; Leipzig: Hinrichs, 1888).
Aland, Synopsis
Kurt Aland, ed., Synopsis quattuor evangeliorum (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1995).
Willoughby C. Allen, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel According to St. Matthew (ICC; 3d ed.; Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1912).
Allison, New Moses
Dale C. Allison, The New Moses: A Matthean Typology (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1993).
Benedictus Aretius (Marti) (c. 1522–74), Commentarii in Domini nostri Jesu Christi Novum Testamentum (Paris: Ioannem le Preux, 1607).
Augustine Sermone Domini
Augustinus De Sermone Domini in Monte, PL 34.1230–1308 (ET: FC 11, trans. Denis J. Kavanagh).
Bacher, Terminologie
Wilhelm Bacher, Die exegetische Terminologie der jüdischen Traditionsliteratur (2 vols.; 1899–1905; reprinted Hildesheim: Olms, 1965).
Bacon, Studies
Benjamin Wisner Bacon, Studies in Matthew (New York: Holt, 1930).
Balch, History
David Balch, ed., Social History of the Matthean Community: Cross-Disciplinary Approaches (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1991).
Banks, Jesus
Robert J. Banks, Jesus and the Law in the Synoptic Tradition (SNTSMS 28; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975).
Barth, “Understanding”
Gerhard Barth, “Matthew’s Understanding of the Law,” in Bornkamm-Barth-Held, Tradition and Interpretation, 85–164.
Barth, CD
Karl Barth, Church Dogmatics (4 vols. in 13; ed. Geoffrey W. Bromiley and Thomas F. Torrance; trans. Bromiley, et al.; Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1956–75; 2d ed. of vol. 1, 1975).
Bauer, Structure
David R. Bauer, The Structure of Matthew’s Gospel: A Study in Literary Design (JSNTSup 31; Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1988).
Bauer-Powell, Treasures
David R. Bauer and Mark Allan Powell, eds., Treasures New and Old: Recent Contributions to Matthean Studies (SBL Symposium Series 1; Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1996).
Francis Wright Beare, The Gospel According to Matthew (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1981).
(Ps.-) Beda Venerabilis (prior to 820), In Matthaei Evangelium expositio (PL 92.9–132).
Johann Albrecht Bengel, Gnomon Novi Testamenti (Tübingen: Schramm, 1742).
Berger, “Gesetzesauslegung”
Klaus Berger, “Die Gesetzesauslegung Jesu in der synoptischen Tradition und ihr Hintergrund im Alten Testament und Spätjudentum” (diss., Munich, 1966).
Berger, Gesetzesauslegung
Klaus Berger, Die Gesetzesauslegung Jesu, vol. 1: Markus und Parallelen (WMANT 40; Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1972).
Betz, “Literary Genre”
Hans Dieter Betz, “The Sermon on the Mount: Its Literary Genre and Function,” in idem, Gesammelte Aufsätze, vol. 2: Synoptische Studien (Tübingen: Mohr/Siebeck, 1992) 77–91.
Betz, Sermon
Hans Dieter Betz, The Sermon on the Mount: A Commentary on the Sermon on the Mount, including the Sermon on the Plain (Matthew 5:3–7:27 and Luke 6:20–49) (Hermeneia; Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1995).
Beyer, Syntax
Klaus Beyer, Semitische Syntax im Neuen Testament, vol. 1: Satzlehre, Teil 1 (2d ed.; SUNT 1; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1968).
Beyschlag, Bergpredigt
Karlmann Beyschlag, Die Bergpredigt und Franz von Assisi (BFChTh 57; Gütersloh: Bertelsmann, 1955).
Theodore of Beza (1516–1605), Jesu Christi Novum Testamentum (Geneva: Stephanus, 1582).
Binder, Aussetzung
Gerhard Binder, Die Aussetzung des Königskindes Kyros und Romulus (Beiträge zur klassischen Philologie 10; Meisenheim: Hain, 1964).
Bischoff, Rabbinen
Erich Bischoff, Jesus und die Rabbinen: Jesu Bergpredigt und “Himmelreich” in ihrer Unabhängigkeit vom Rabbinismus (Schriften des Institutum Judaicum in Berlin 33; Leipzig: Hinrich, 1905).
Black, Approach
Matthew Black, An Aramaic Approach to the Gospels and Acts (3d ed.; Oxford: Clarendon, 1967).
Bloch, “Gestalt”
Renée Bloch, “Die Gestalt des Moses in der rabbinischen Tradition,” in Fridolin Stier and Eleonore Beck, eds., Moses in Schrift und Überlieferung (Düsseldorf: Patmos, 1963) 95–171.
Bonhoeffer, Cost
Dietrich Bonhoeffer, The Cost of Discipleship (trans. Reginald H. Fuller, rev. by Irmgard Booth; rev. ed.; New York: Macmillan, 1959).
Pierre Bonnard, L’Évangile selon saint Matthieu (2d ed.; CNT 1; Neuchâtel: Delachaux & Niestlé, 1970).
Bornhäuser, Bergpredigt
Karl Bernhard Bornhäuser, Die Bergpredigt: Versuch einer zeitgenössischen Auslegung (BFChTh 2/7; Gütersloh: Bertelsmann, 1923).
Bornkamm, “End Expectation”
Günther Bornkamm, “End Expectation and Church in Matthew,” in Bornkamm-Barth-Held, Tradition and Interpretation, 15–51.
Bornkamm-Barth-Held, Tradition and Interpretation
Günther Bornkamm, Gerhard Barth, and Heinz Joachim Held, Tradition and Interpretation in Matthew (trans. Percy Scott; NTL; Philadelphia: Westminster, 1972).
Jacques Bénigne Bossuet (1627–1704), Méditations sur l’Évangile (2 vols.; Paris: Garnier Frères, 1922).
Bovon, Lukas
François Bovon, Das Evangelium nach Lukas (3 vols.; EKKNT 3; Zurich: Benziger, 1989–2001).
Bovon, Luke 1
François Bovon, Luke 1: A Commentary on the Gospel of Luke 1:1–9:50 (trans. Christine M. Thomas; Hermeneia; Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2002).
Johannes Brenz (1499–1570), In scriptum apostoli et evangelistae Matthaei de rebus gestis Domini Nostri Jesu Christi commentarius (Tübingen: Mohard, 1567).
Broer, Freiheit
Ingo Broer, Freiheit vom Gesetz und Radikalisierung des Gesetzes (SBS 98; Stuttgart: Katholisches Bibelwerk, 1980).
Brooks, Community
Stephenson H. Brooks, Matthew’s Community: The Evidence of His Special Sayings Material (JSNTSup 16; Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1987).
Brown, Birth
Raymond E. Brown, The Birth of the Messiah (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1977).
Martin Bucer (1491–1551), Enarrationes perpetuae in Sacra quatuor Evangelia (Argentoriati: Heruagium, 1530).
Heinrich Bullinger (1504–1575), In Sacrosanctum Iesu Christi Domini nostri Evangelium secundum Matthaeum Commentariorum libri XII (Zurich: Froschoverum, 1554).
Bultmann, History
Rudolf Bultmann, The History of the Synoptic Tradition (trans. John Marsh; 2d ed.; New York: Harper & Row, 1968).
Burchard, “Theme”
Christoph Burchard, “The Theme of the Sermon on the Mount,” in Louise Schottroff, et al., Essays on the Love Commandment (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1978) 57–91.
Burridge, Gospels
Richard A. Burridge, What Are the Gospels? A Comparison with Graeco-Roman Biography (SNTSMS 70; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992) 112–95.
Georg Calixtus (1586–1656), Quatuor Evangelicorum Scriptorum Concordia … (Helmstedt: Mullerus, 1663).
Abraham Calovius (1612–1686), Biblia Novi Testamenti illustrata, vol. 1 (Dresden: Zimmermann, 1719).
John Calvin (1509–1564), A Harmony of the Gospels: Matthew, Mark, and Luke (ed. David W. Torrance and Thomas F. Torrance; trans. A. W. Morrison and T. H. L. Parker; 3 vols.; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1972).
Calvin, Inst.
John Calvin, Institutio Christianae Religionis (ET when given = Institutes of the Christian Religion, trans. Ford Lewis Battles; 2 vols.; LCC 20; Philadelphia: Westminster, 1960).
Catchpole, Quest
David R. Catchpole, The Quest for Q (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1993).
Martin Chemnitz (1522–1586), Harmonia Chemnitio-Lysero-Gerhardina, vol. 1 (2d ed.; Hamburg: Hertel & Libernickel, 1704).
Christian of Stavelot
Christian of Stavelot (Christianus Druthmarus, d. 880), Expositio in Matthaeum Evangelistam (PL 106.1261–1504).
Chromatius of Aquileia (c. 400), Tractatus in Matthaeum (CChr.SL 9A; Turnholt: Brepols, 1974).
Concord, Book of
Theodore G. Tappert, ed., The Book of Concord: The Confessions of the Evangelical Lutheran Church (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1959).
J. A. Cramer, Catenae Graecorum Patrum in Novum Testamentum, vol. 1: Catenae in Ev. S. Matthei et S. Marci (1840; reprinted Hildesheim: Olms, 1967).
Cyril of Alexandria
Cyril of Alexandria (d. 444), Commentariorum in Matthaeum quae supersunt (PG 72.365–474).
Dalman, Arbeit
Gustaf Dalman, Arbeit und Sitte in Palästina (7 vols.; Gütersloh: Bertelsmann, 1928–39).
Dalman, Jesus
Gustaf Dalman, Jesus-Jeshua: Studies in the Gospels (trans. Paul P. Levertoff; 1929; reprinted New York: Ktav, 1971).
Dalman, Orte
Gustaf Dalman, Orte und Wege Jesu (2d ed.; BFChTh 2/1; Gütersloh: Bertelmann, 1921).
Dalman, Words
Gustaf Dalman, The Words of Jesus (trans. D. M. Kay; Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1909).
Dalman, Worte
Gustaf Dalman, Die Worte Jesu (2d ed.; Leipzig: Hinrichs, 1930). [The appendix on the Lord’s Prayer is not included in the English translation, which was based on the 1st edition.]
Daube, New Testament
David Daube, The New Testament and Rabbinic Judaism (Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1990).
Davies, Setting
W. D. Davies, The Setting of the Sermon on the Mount (1964; reprinted Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1989).
William David Davies and Dale C. Allison, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel According to Saint Matthew (3 vols.; ICC; Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1988–97).
Davis, “Tradition”
Charles Thomas Davis, “Tradition and Redaction in Matt 1:18–2:23,” JBL 90 (1971) 404–21.
Degenhardt, Lukas
Hans Joachim Degenhardt, Lukas, Evangelist der Armen: Besitz und Besitzverzicht in den lukanischen Schriften (Stuttgart: Katholisches Bibelwerk, 1965).
Denaux, “Spruch”
Adelbert Denaux, “Der Spruch von den zwei Wegen im Rahmen des Epilogs der Bergpredigt,” in Joël Delobel, ed., Logia: Les Paroles de Jésus: The Sayings of Jesus: Mémorial Joseph Coppens (BEThL 59; Louvain: Peeters and Louvain University Press, 1982) 305–35.
Dibelius, “Bergpredigt”
Martin Dibelius, “Die Bergpredigt,” in Botschaft und Geschichte: Gesammelte Aufsätze (2 vols.; Tübingen: Mohr/Siebeck, 1953–56) 1.79–174.
Dibelius, Tradition
Martin Dibelius, From Tradition to Gospel (trans. Bertram Lee Woolf; New York: Scribner’s, 1935).
Didier, Évangile
M. Didier, ed., L’Évangile selon Matthieu (BEThL 29; Gembloux: Duculot, 1972).
Dietzfelbinger, Antithesen
Christian Dietzfelbinger, Die Antithesen der Bergpredigt (TEH 186; Munich: Kaiser, 1975).
Dihle, Regel
Albrecht Dihle, Die goldene Regel: Eine Einführung in die Geschichte der antiken und frühchristlichen Vulgärethik (SAW 7; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1962).
Dionysius bar Salibi
Dionysius bar Salibi (d. 1171), Commentarii in Evangelia (ed. I. Sedlacek and Arthur Vaschalde; 3 vols.; Louvain: Durbecq, 1953).
Dobschütz, “Matthäus”
Ernst von Dobschütz, “Matthäus als Rabbi und Katechet,” ZNW 27 (1928) 338–48.
Donaldson, Jesus
Terence L. Donaldson, Jesus on the Mountain: A Study in Matthean Theology (JSNTSup 8; Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1985).
Eugen Drewermann, Das Matthäusevangelium (Bilder der Erfüllung; 3 vols.; Olten: Walter, 1992, 1994, 1995).
Dupont, Béatitudes
Jacques Dupont, Les Béatitudes, vol. 1: Le problème littéraire; vol. 2: La bonne nouvelle; vol. 3: Les Évangélistes (EtB; Paris: Gabalda, 1958–73).
Eichholz, Auslegung
Georg Eichholz, Auslegung der Bergpredigt (6th ed.; Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1984).
Ephraem Syrus (306–377), Commentaire de l’Évangile Concordant ou Diatessaron (trans. L. Leloir; SC 121; Paris: Cerf, 1966).
Erasmus, Paraphrasis
Desiderius Erasmus, Opera Omnia, vol. 7: In Evangelium Matthaei Paraphrasis (reprinted Hildesheim: Olms, 1962).
Euthymius Zigabenus
Euthymius Zigabenus (12th century), Commentarius in quatuor Evangelia (PG 129.107–766).
Faber Stapulensis
Faber Stapulensis (c. 1455–1536), Comentarii initiatorii in quatuor Evangelia (Basel: Andreae Cratandri, 1523).
Fiebig, Bergpredigt
Paul Fiebig, Jesu Bergpredigt: Rabbinische Texte zum Verständnis der Bergpredigt (FRLANT 37; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1924).
Flusser, Judaism
David Flusser, Judaism and the Origins of Christianity (Jerusalem: Magnes, 1988).
Hubert Frankemölle, Matthäus: Kommentar (2 vols.; Düsseldorf: Patmos, 1994–97).
Frankemölle, Jahwebund
Hubert Frankemölle, Jahwebund und Kirche Christi (NTAbh n.s. 10; Münster: Aschendorff, 1974).
H. Freedman and Maurice Simon, eds., Midrash Rabbah (10 vols.; London: Soncino, 1983).
Frenschkowski, “Traum”
Marco Frenschkowski, “Traum und Traumdeutung im Matthäusevangelium,” JAC 41 (1998) 5–47.
Paul Gaechter, Das Matthäus-Evangelium: Ein Kommentar (Innsbruck: Tyrolia, 1963).
von Gemünden, Vegetationsmetaphorik
Petra von Gemünden, Vegetationsmetaphorik im Neuen Testament und seiner Umwelt: Eine Bildfelduntersuchung (NTOA 18; Freiburg: Universitätsverlag, 1993) 122–30, 182–85.
Giesen, Handeln
Heinz Giesen, Christliches Handeln: Eine redaktionskritische Untersuchung zum δικαιοσύνη Begriff im Matthäus-Evangelium (EHS.T 181; Frankfurt: Lang, 1982).
Joachim Gnilka, Das Matthäusevangelium (2 vols.; HThKNT 1/1–2; Freiburg: Herder, 1986–88).
Goulder, Midrash
M. D. Goulder, Midrash and Lection in Matthew (London: S.P.C.K., 1974).
Hugo Grotius (1583–1645), Annotationes in Novum Testamentum (2 vols.; Groningen: Zuidema, 1826–27).
Walter Grundmann, Das Evangelium nach Matthaeus (ThHKNT 1; Berlin: Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, 1968).
Guelich, “Not to Annul”
Robert A. Guelich, “ ‘Not to Annul the Law, Rather to Fulfill the Law and the Prophets’: An Exegetical Study of Jesus and the Law in Matthew with Emphasis on 5:17–48” (diss., Hamburg, 1967).
Guelich, Sermon
Robert A. Guelich, The Sermon on the Mount: A Foundation for Understanding (Waco: Word, 1982).
Robert H. Gundry, Matthew: A Commentary on His Literary and Theological Art (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1982).
Gundry, Use
Robert H. Gundry, The Use of the Old Testament in St. Matthew’s Gospel, with Special Reference to the Messianic Hope (NovTSup 18; Leiden: Brill, 1967).
Häfner, Vorläufer
Gerd Häfner, Der verheissene Vorläufer: Redaktionskritische Untersuchung zur Darstellung Johannes des Täufers im Matthäus-Evangelium (SBB 27; Stuttgart: Katholisches Bibelwerk, 1994).
Häfner, “Jene Tage”
Gerd Häfner, “ ‘Jene Tage’ (Mt 3,1) und der Umfang des matthäischen ‘Prologs’,” BZ NF 37 (1993) 43–59.
Donald Alfred Hagner, Matthew (2 vols.; Word Biblical Commentary 33A–B; Dallas: Word, 1993–95).
Hahn, “Worte”
Ferdinand Hahn, “Die Worte vom Licht Lk 11,33–36,” in Paul Hoffmann, ed., Orientierung an Jesus: Zur Theologie der Synoptiker: Für Josef Schmid (Freiburg: Herder, 1973) 107–38.
Hawkins, Horae
John C. Hawkins, Horae Synopticae: Contributions to the Study of the Synoptic Problem (1909; reprinted Grand Rapids: Baker, 1968).
Heinemann, Prayer
Joseph Heinemann, Prayer in the Talmud: Forms and Patterns (SJ 9; Berlin: de Gruyter, 1977).
Heinrici, “Bergpredigt”
C. F. Georg Heinrici, “Die Bergpredigt (Matth. 5–7, Luk. 6,20–49), begriffsgeschichtlich untersucht,” in Beiträge zur Geschichte und Erklärung des NT, vol. 3 (Leipzig: Edelmann, 1905) 1–98.
Hengel, “Bergpredigt”
Martin Hengel, “Zur matthäischen Bergpredigt und ihrem jüdischen Hintergrund,” ThR 52 (1987) 327–400.
Hengel-Merkel, “Magier”
Martin Hengel and Helmut Merkel, “Die Magier aus dem Osten und die Flucht nach Ägypten (Mt 2) im Rahmen der antiken Religionsgeschichte und der Theologie des Matthäus,” in Paul Hoffmann, ed., Orientierung an Jesus: Zur Theologie der Synoptiker: Für Josef Schmid (Freiburg: Herder, 1973) 139–69.
Hesychii Alexandrini Lexicon, ed. Johannes Alberte, Moritz Schmidt, Rudolf Menge (1858; reprinted Amsterdam: Hakkert, 1965).
Hilary of Poitiers (c. 315–367), In Evangelium Matthaei Commentarius (PL 9.917–1078; cited according to Jean Doignon, ed., Sur Matthieu, 2 vols.; SC 254, 258; Paris: Cerf, 1978, 1979).
Hoffmann, “Auslegung”
Paul Hoffmann, “Auslegung der Bergpredigt, I–V” BiLe 10 (1969) 57–65, 111–22, 175–89, 264–75; 11 (1970) 89–104.
Hoffmann-Eid, Jesus
Paul Hoffmann and Volker Eid, Jesus von Nazareth und eine christliche Moral (2d ed.; QD 66; Freiburg: Herder, 1975).
H. J. Holtzmann, Die Synoptiker (3d ed.; HKNT 1/1; Tübingen: Mohr/Siebeck, 1901).
Howell, Inclusive Story
David B. Howell, Matthew’s Inclusive Story: A Study in the Narrative Rhetoric of the First Gospel (JSNTSup 42; Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1990).
Hübner, Gesetz
Hans Hübner, Das Gesetz in der synoptischen Tradition: Studien zur These einer progressiven Tradition (Witten: Luther-Verlag, 1973).
Hummel, Auseinandersetzung
Reinhart Hummel, Die Auseinandersetzung zwischen Kirche und Judentum im Matthäusevangelium (BEvTh 33; Munich: Kaiser, 1963).
Aegidius Hunnius (ca. 315–367), Commentarius in Evangelium S. Matthaei Apostoli & Evangelistae, in Operum Latinorum tomus tertius (Wittenberg: 1608) 1–616.
Ishodad of Merv
Ishodad of Merv (d. 850), The Commentaries, vol. 1 (ed. M. D. Gibson; Horae Semiticae 5; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1911).
Cornelius Jansen (1585–1638), Tetrateuchus sive Commentarius in sancta Jesu Christi Evangelia (Brussels: Francisci T’Serstevens, 1737).
Jeremias, Abba
Joachim Jeremias, Abba: Studien zur neutestamentlichen Theologie und Zeitgeschichte (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1966).
Jeremias, “Bergpredigt”
Joachim Jeremias, “Die Bergpredigt,” in Abba, 171–89.
Jeremias, Parables
Joachim Jeremias, The Parables of Jesus (trans. S. H. Hooke; rev. ed.; New York: Scribner’s, 1972).
Jeremias, Prayers
Joachim Jeremias, The Prayers of Jesus (trans. John Bowden, et al.; 1967; reprinted Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1978).
Jeremias, Theology
Joachim Jeremias, New Testament Theology: The Proclamation of Jesus (trans. John Bowden; New York: Scribner’s, 1971).
Jerome [Hieronymus] (c. 340–420), Commentariorum in Matthaeum libri IV (CChr.SL 77; Turnholt: Brepols, 1959).
John Chrysostom
John Chrysostom (c. 354–407), Commentarius in sanctum Matthaeum Evangelistam (PG 57–58).
Jülicher, Gleichnisreden
Adolf Jülicher, Die Gleichnisreden Jesu (2d ed.; 2 vols.; 1910; reprinted Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1976).
Juvencus, Gaius Vettius Aquilinus (4th century), Evangeliorum libri IV (PL 19.54–338).
Craig S. Keener, A Commentary on the Gospel of Matthew (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1999).
Kilpatrick, Origins
George D. Kilpatrick, The Origins of the Gospel According to St. Matthew (Oxford: Clarendon, 1946).
Kingsbury, Story
Jack Dean Kingsbury, Matthew as Story (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1986).
Kingsbury, Structure
Jack Dean Kingsbury, Matthew: Structure, Christology, Kingdom (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1975).
Erich Klostermann, Das Matthäusevangelium (2d ed.; HNT 4; Tübingen: Mohr/Siebeck, 1927).
Joseph Knabenbauer, Commentarius in Evangelium secundum Matthaeum (3d ed.; 2 vols.; Cursus scripturae sacrae 3/1–2; Paris: Lithielleeux, 1922).
Köhler, Rezeption
Wolf-Dietrich Köhler, Die Rezeption des Matthäusevangeliums in der Zeit vor Irenäus (WUNT 2/24; Tübingen: Mohr/Siebeck, 1987).
Krauss, Archäologie
Samuel Krauss, Talmudische Archäologie (3 vols.; 1910–12; reprinted Hildesheim: Olms, 1966).
Krentz, “Extent”
Edgar Krentz, “The Extent of Matthew’s Prologue,” JBL 83 (1964) 409–14.
Kretzer, Herrschaft
Armin Kretzer, Die Herrschaft der Himmel und die Söhne des Reiches (SBM 10; Stuttgart: Katholisches Bibelwerk, 1971).
Krüger, Evangelienauslegung
Friedhelm Krüger, Humanistische Evangelienauslegung: Desiderius Erasmus von Rotterdam als Ausleger der Evangelien in seinen Paraphrasen (BHTh 68; Tübingen: Mohr/Siebeck, 1986).
Kuhn, “Liebesgebot”
Heinz-Wolfgang Kuhn, “Das Liebesgebot Jesu als Tora und als Evangelium,” in Hubert Frankemölle and Karl Kertelge, eds., Vom Urchristentum zu Jesus: Für Joachim Gnilka (Freiburg: Herder, 1989) 194–230.
M. J. Lagrange, Évangile selon Saint Matthieu (EtB; Paris: Gabalda, 1923).
Cornelius à Lapide (= van den Steen) (d. 1687), Commentarius in quatuor Evangelia: Argumentum in S. Matthaeum (Antwerp: Meurstum, 1660).
Lapide, Sermon
Pinchas Lapide, The Sermon on the Mount: Utopia or Program for Action (trans. Arlene Swidler; Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis, 1986).
Legenda Aurea
Jacobus de Voragine, The Golden Legend (Salem, N.H.: Ayer, 1969).
Liber Graduum
Liber Graduum (ed. Michael Kmosko; PS 1/3; Paris: Firmin-Didot, 1926).
Lindars, Apologetic
Barnabas Lindars, New Testament Apologetic: The Doctrinal Significance of the Old Testament Quotations (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1961).
Ljungman, Gesetz
Henrik Ljungman, Das Gesetz erfüllen (Lunds Universitets Årsskrift NF Avd. 1 50/6; Lund: Gleerup, 1954).
Lohfink, Bergpredit
Gerhard Lohfink, Wem Gilt die Bergpredigt? Beiträge zu einer christlichen Ethik (Freiburg: Herder, 1988).
Ernst Lohmeyer, Das Evangelium des Matthäus (ed. Werner Schmauch; 4th ed.; KEK Sonderband; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1967).
Alfred F. Loisy, Les Évangiles synoptiques (2 vols.; Paris: Ceffonds, 1907–8).
Luomanen, Entering
Petri Luomanen, Entering the Kingdom of Heaven: A Study on the Structure of Matthew’s View of Salvation (WUNT 2/101; Tübingen: Mohr/Siebeck, 1998).
Martin Luther (1483–1546), D. Martin Luthers Evangelien-Auslegung (ed. Erwin Mühlhaupt; 5 vols.; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1964–73).
Luz, “Disciples”
Ulrich Luz, “The Disciples in the Gospel According to Matthew,” in Stanton, Interpretation, 115–48 (reprinted in Luz, Studies, 115–42).
Luz, “Matthew and Q.”
Ulrich Luz, “Matthew and Q,” in Studies, 39–53.
Luz, Studies
Ulrich Luz, Studies in Matthew (trans. Rosemary Selle; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2005).
McConnell, Law
Richard S. McConnell, Law and Prophecy in Matthew’s Gospel: The Authority and Use of the Old Testament in the Gospel of St. Matthew (Theologische Dissertationen 2; Basel: Reinhardt, 1969).
A. H. McNeile, The Gospel According to St. Matthew (1915; reprinted London: Macmillan, 1965).
Gerhard Maier, Matthäus-Evangelium (2 vols.; Neuhausen-Stuttgart: Hänssler, 1979).
Juan de Maldonado (1533–1583), Commentarii in quatuor Evangelistas, vol. 1 (ed. Johann Michael Raich; Moguntiae: Sumptibus Francisci Kirchheim, 1874).
Manson, Sayings
T. W. Manson, The Sayings of Jesus (2d ed.; London: SCM, 1949).
Marguerat, Jugement
Daniel Marguerat, Le Jugement dans l’Évangile de Matthieu (2d ed.; Geneva: Labor et Fides, 1995).
Mayordomo-Marín, Anfang
Moisés Mayordomo-Marín, Den Anfang hören: Leserorientierte Evangelienexegese am Beispiel von Matthäus 1–2 (FRLANT 180; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1998).
Mayser, Grammatik
Edwin Mayser, Grammatik der griechischen Papyri aus der Ptolemärzeit (2 vols. in 6; Berlin: de Gruyter, 1970).
Meier, Law
John P. Meier, Law and History in Matthew’s Gospel (AnBib 71; Rome: Biblical Institute Press, 1976).
Philip Melanchthon (1497–1560), Annotationes in Evangelium Matthaei iam reens in gratiam studiosorum editae, in Werke, vol. 4 (ed. Robert Stupperich; Gütersloh: Bertelsmann, 1963).
Merklein, Gottesherrschaft
Helmut Merklein, Die Gottesherrschaft als Handlungsprinzip (2d ed.; FzB 34; Würzburg: Echter Verlag, 1981).
Heinrich August Wilhelm Meyer, Critical and Exegetical Hand-Book to the Gospel of Matthew (trans. Peter Christie; New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1884).
Wilhelm Michaelis, Das Evangelium nach Matthäus (2 vols.; Zurich: Zwingli, 1948–49).
Montefiore, Gospels
C. G. Montefiore, The Synoptic Gospels (2d ed.; 2 vols.; 1927; reprinted New York: Ktav, 1968).
Montefiore, Literature
C. G. Montefiore, Rabbinic Literature and Gospel Teachings (1930; reprinted New York: Ktav, 1970).
Moore, Judaism
George Foot Moore, Judaism in the First Centuries of the Christian Era (3 vols.; Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1927–30).
Neirynck, Agreements
Frans Neirynck, The Minor Agreements in a Horizontal-Line Synopsis (Louvain: Louvain University Press, 1991).
Eberhard Nestle, et al., Novum Testamentum Graece (27th ed.; Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1993).
Niederwimmer, Askese
Kurt Niederwimmer, Askese und Mysterium: Über Ehe, Ehescheidung und Eheverzicht in den Anfängen des christlichen Glaubens (FRLANT 113; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1975).
Nissen, Gott
Andreas Nissen, Gott und der Nächste im antiken Judentum: Untersuchungen zum Doppelgebot der Liebe (WUNT 15; Tübingen: Mohr/Siebeck, 1974).
Nolan, Son
Brian M. Nolan, The Royal Son of God: The Christology of Matthew 1–2 (OBO 23; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1979).
Ogawa, Histoire
Akira Ogawa, L’histoire de Jésus chez Mattieu: La signification de l’histoire pour la théologie matthéenne (EHS.T 116; Frankfurt: P. Lang, 1979).
Hermann Olshausen, Biblical Commentary on the New Testament (trans. A. C. Kendrick; 6 vols.; New York: Sheldon, Blakeman, 1857–58).
Opus Imperfectum
Pseudo-Chrysostom (6th century, Arian), Diatribe ad opus imperfectum in Matthaeum (PL 56.601–946).
Paschasius Radbertus
Paschasius Radbertus (c. 790–859), Expositio in Evangelium Matthaei (PL 120.31–994).
Patte, Discipleship
Daniel Patte, Discipleship According to the Sermon on the Mount: Four Legitimate Readings, Four Plausible Views of Discipleship, and Their Relative Values (Valley Forge, Pa.: Trinity Press International, 1996).
Paul, L’évangile
André Paul, L’évangile de l’enfance selon Saint Matthieu (Paris: Cerf, 1968).
Heinrich Eberhard Gottlob Paulus, Philologisch-kritische und historische Commentare über die drey ersten Evangelien (4 vols.; Lübeck: Bohn, 1800–1808).
Percy, Botschaft
Ernst Percy, Die Botschaft Jesu: Eine traditionskritische und exegetische Untersuchung (Lund: Gleerup, 1953).
Peretto, “Ricerche.”
E. Peretto, “Ricerche su Mt 1–2,” Marianum 31 (1969) 140–247.
Pesch, “Gottessohn”
Rudolf Pesch, “Der Gottessohn im matthäischen Evangelienprolog (Mt 1–2): Beobachtungen zu den Zitationsformeln der Reflexionszitate,” Bib 14 (1967) 395–420.
Pesch, Theologie
Rudolf Pesch, ed., Zur Theologie der Kindheitsgeschichten: Der heutige Stand der Exegese (Schriftenreihe der katholischen Akademie Freiburg; Munich: Schnell & Steiner, 1981).
Peter of Laodicea
Peter of Laodicea (7th century), Erklärung des Matthaeusevangeliums (Beiträge zur Geschichte und Erklärung des Neuen Testaments 5; Leipzig: Durr, 1908).
Piper, Enemies
John Piper, Love Your Enemies: Jesus’ Love Command in the Synoptic Gospels and in the Early Christian Paraenesis (SNTSMS 38; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979).
Polag, Fragmenta
Athanasius Polag, Fragmenta Q (Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1979).
Przybylski, Righteousness
Benno Przybylski, Righteousness in Matthew and His World of Thought (SNTSMS 41: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980).
Rabanus Maurus (780–856), Commentariorum in Matthaeum libri VIII (PL 107.727–1156).
Jean Radermakers, Au fil de l’Évangile selon saint Matthieu (2 vols.; Heverlee-Louvain: Institut d’études théologiques, 1972).
Ragaz, Bergpredigt
Leonhard Ragaz, Die Bergpredigt Jesu (1945; reprinted Hamburg: Furche, 1971).
Reiser, Judgment
Marius Reiser, Jesus and Judgment: The Eschatological Proclamation in Its Jewish Context (trans. Linda M. Maloney; Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1997).
Joseph Reuss, Matthäus-Kommentare aus der griechischen Kirche (TU 61; Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1957).
Rothfuchs, Erfüllungszitate
Wilhelm Rothfuchs, Die Erfüllungszitate des Matthäus-Evangeliums (BWANT 88; Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1969).
Léopold Sabourin, L’Évangile selon saint Matthieu et ses principaux parallèles (Rome: Biblical Institute Press, 1978).
Saintyves, “Massacre”
Pierre Saintyves, “Le massacre des innocents ou la persécution de l’enfant prédestine,” in Paul Louis Couchoud, ed., Congrès d’histoire du Christianisme: Jubilé Alfred Loisy, vol. 1 (Paris: Rieder, 1928).
Alexander Sand, Das Evangelium nach Matthäus (RNT; Regensburg: Pustet, 1986).
Sand, Gesetz
Alexander Sand, Das Gesetz und die Propheten: Untersuchungen zur Theologie des Evangeliums nach Matthäus (BU 11; Regensburg: Pustet, 1974).
Sato, Q
Migaku Sato, Q und Prophetie: Studien zur Gattungs- und Traditionsgeschichte der Quelle Q (WUNT 2/29; Tübingen: Mohr/Siebeck, 1988).
Sauer, “Erwägungen”
Jürgen Sauer, “Traditionsgeschichtliche Erwägungen zu den synoptischen und paulinischen Aussagen über Feindesliebe und Wiedvergeltungsverzicht,” ZNW 76 (1985) 1–28.
Schellong, Gesetz
Dieter Schellong, Das evangelische Gesetz in der Auslegung Calvins (TEH 152; Munich: Kaiser, 1968).
Schenk, Sprache
Wolfgang Schenk, Die Sprache des Matthäus: Die Text-Konstituenten in ihren makro- und mikro-strukturellen Relationen (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1987).
Adolf Schlatter, Der Evangelist Matthäus (2d ed.; Stuttgart: Calwer, 1933).
Schleiermacher, Faith
Friedrich Schleiermacher, The Christian Faith (1828; reprinted Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1989).
Schmid, Matthäus und Lukas
Josef Schmid, Matthäus und Lukas: Eine Untersuchung des Verhältnisses ihrer Evangelien (BibS 23/2–4; Freiburg: Herder, 1930).
Schnackenburg, Bergpredigt
Rudolf Schnackenburg, ed., Die Bergpredigt: Utopische Vision oder Handlungsanweisung? (Düsseldorf: Patmos, 1982).
Julius Schniewind, Das Evangelium nach Matthäus (8th ed.; NTD 2; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1956).
Schottroff, “Non-Violence”
Luise Schottroff, “Non-Violence and the Love of One’s Enemies,” in Luise Schottroff, et al., Essays on the Love Commandment (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1978) 9–39.
Schottroff-Stegemann, Hope
Luise Schottroff and Wolfgang Stegemann, Jesus and the Hope of the Poor (trans. Matthew J. O’Connell; Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis, 1986).
Schulz, Q
Siegfried Schulz, Q: Die Spruchquelle der Evangelisten (Zurich: Theologischer Verlag, 1972).
Schürmann, Lukasevangelium
Heinz Schürmann, Das Lukasevangelium (2 vols.; HThKNT 3/1–2; Freiburg: Herder, 1969–93).
Schürmann, Untersuchungen
Heinz Schürmann, Traditionsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen zu den synoptischen Evangelien (KBANT; Düsseldorf: Patmos, 1968).
Schwarzenau, Kind
Paul Schwarzenau, Das göttliche Kind: Der Mythos vom Neubeginn (Stuttgart: Kreuz, 1984).
Eduard Schweizer, The Good News According to Matthew (trans. D. E. Green; Atlanta: John Knox, 1975).
Schweizer, “Church”
Eduard Schweizer, “Matthew’s Church,” in Stanton, Interpretation, 149–77.
Schweizer, Matthäus
Eduard Schweizer, Matthäus und seine Gemeinde (SBS 71; Stuttgart: Katholisches Bibelwerk, 1974).
Segbroeck, Four Gospels
Frans van Segbroeck, et al., eds., The Four Gospels: Festschrift Frans Neirynck (3 vols.; BEThL 100; Louvain: Louvain University Press, 1992).
Sim, Gospel
D. C. Sim, The Gospel of Matthew and Christian Judaism: The History and Social Setting of the Matthean Community (Studies of the New Testament and Its World; Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1998).
Slingerland, “Origin”
H. Dixon Slingerland, “The Transjordanian Origin of St. Matthew’s Gospel,” JSNT 3 (1979) 18–28.
Soares-Prabhu, Quotations
George M. Soares-Prabhu, The Formula Quotations on the Infancy Narrative of Matthew (AnBib 63; Rome: Biblical Institute Press, 1976).
Soiron, Bergpredigt
Thaddaeus Soiron, Die Bergpredigt Jesu: Formgeschichtliche, exegetische und theologische Erklärung (Freiburg: Herder, 1941).
Spicq, Lexicon
Ceslas Spicq, Theological Lexicon of the New Testament (trans. James D. Ernest; 3 vols.; Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1994).
Stadtland-Neumann, Radikalismen
Hiltrud Stadtland-Neumann, Evangelische Radikalismen in der Sicht Calvins: Sein Verständnis der Bergpredigt und der Aussendungsrede (Mt 10) (BGLRK 24; Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1966).
Stanton, Gospel
Graham N. Stanton, A Gospel for a New People: Studies in Matthew (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark,1992).
Stanton, Interpretation
Graham N. Stanton, ed., The Interpretation of Matthew (2d ed.; Edinburgh: T. &T. Clark, 1995).
Stanton, “Matthew”
Graham N. Stanton, “Matthew: Βίβλος, εὐαγγέλιον or βίος?” in Segbroeck, Four Gospels, 2.1187–1201.
Stauffer, Botschaft
Ethelbert Stauffer, Die Botschaft Jesu: Damals und heute (Dalp-Taschenbücher 333; Bern: Franke, 1959).
Stendahl, “Quis et Unde”
Krister Stendahl, “Quis et unde? An Analysis of Matthew 1–2,” in Stanton, Interpretation, 69–80 (reprinted from Walther Eltester, ed., Judentum, Urchristentum, Kirche: Festschrift für Joachim Jeremias [2d ed.; BZNW 26; Berlin: Töpelmann, 1964] 94–105).
Stendahl, School
Krister Stendahl, The School of St. Matthew, and Its Use of the Old Testament (2d ed.; Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1968).
Stoll, Virtute
Brigitta Stoll, De Virtute in Virtutem: zur Auslegungs- und Wirkungsgeschichte der Bergpredigt in Kommentaren, Predigten und hagiographischer Literatur von der Merowingerzeit bis um 1200 (BGBE 30; Tübingen: Mohr/Siebeck, 1988).
Walafrid Strabo (attributed, 12th century), Glossa Ordinaria (PL 114.63–178).
Strecker, “Antithesen”
Georg Strecker, “Die Antithesen der Bergpredigt (Mt 5,21–48 par),” ZNW 69 (1978) 36–72.
Strecker, Sermon
Georg Strecker, The Sermon on the Mount: An Exegetical Commentary (trans. O. C. Dean; Nashville: Abingdon, 1988).
Strecker, Weg
Georg Strecker, Der Weg der Gerechtigkeit: Untersuchungen zur Theologie des Matthäus (FRLANT 82; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1962).
Streeter, Gospels
Burnett Hillman Streeter, The Four Gospels (London: Macmillan, 1924).
Stuhlmacher, “Gesetz”
Peter Stuhlmacher, “Jesu vollkommenes Gesetz der Freiheit: Zum Verständnis der Bergpredigt,” ZThK 79 (1982) 294–306.
Suggs, Wisdom
M. Jack Suggs, Wisdom, Christology, and Law in Matthew’s Gospel (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1970).
Syreeni, Making
Kari Syreeni, The Making of the Sermon on the Mount: A Procedural Analysis of Matthew’s Redactoral Activity, part 1: Methodology and Compositional Analysis (AASF. Dissertationes Humanarum Litterarum 44; Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia, 1987).
Tannehill, Sword
Robert C. Tannehill, The Sword of His Mouth (SemSup 1; Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1975).
Tatum, “Origins”
W. Barnes Tatum, “ ‘The Origins of Jesus Messiah’ (Matt 1:1, 18a): Matthew’s Use of the Infancy Traditions,” JBL 96 (1977) 523–35.
Theissen, Gospels in Context
Gerd Theissen, The Gospels in Context: Social and Political History in the Synoptic Tradition (trans. Linda M. Maloney; Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1991).
Theissen, Social Reality
Gerd Theissen, Social Reality and the Early Christians (trans. Margaret Kohl; Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1992).
Theophylactus (d. c. 1108), Ennaratio in Evangelium Matthaei (PG 123.139–92).
Tholuck, Commentary
August Tholuck, Commentary on the Sermon on the Mount (trans. R. Lundin Brown; 1860; reprinted Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1874).
Thomas Aquinas Lectura
Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274), Super Evangelium S. Matthaei Lectura (5th ed.; Turin: Marietti, 1951).
Thomas Aquinas S. th.
Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica (5 vols.; BAC; Madrid: La Editorial Catolica, 1955–58).
Tilborg, Leaders
Sjef van Tilborg, The Jewish Leaders in Matthew (Leiden: Brill, 1972).
Tolstoy, Religion
Leo Tolstoy, My Religion (trans. from the French by Huntington Smith; New York: Crowell, 1885).
Wolfgang Trilling, The Gospel According to St. Matthew (trans. Kevin Smyth; 2 vols.; New York: Herder & Herder, 1969).
Trilling, Christusverkündigung
Wolfgang Trilling, Die Christusverkündigung in den synoptischen Evangelien: Beispiele gattungsgemässer Auslegung (Munich: Kösel, 1969).
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Wolfgang Trilling, Das wahre Israel: Studien zur Theologie des Matthäusevangeliums (3d ed.; EThSt 7; Leipzig: St. Benno, 1975).
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Anton Vögtle, “Die Genealogie Mt 1,2–16 und die matthäische Kindheitsgeschichte,” in Das Evangelium und die Evangelien (KBANT; Düsseldorf: Patmos, 1971) 57–102.
Vouga, Jésus
François Vouga, Jésus et la loi selon la tradition synoptique (Geneva: Labor et Fides, 1988) 189–301.
Walker, Heilsgeschichte
Rolf Walker, Die Heilsgeschichte im ersten Evangelium (FRLANT 91; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1967).
Weder, Rede
Hans Weder, Die “Rede der Reden”: Eine Auslegung der Bergpredigt heute (Zurich: Theologischer Verlag, 1985).
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John Wesley on the Sermon on the Mount: The Standard Sermons in Modern English (ed. Kenneth Cain Kinghorn; Nashville: Abingdon, 2002) = vol. 2 of Wesley’s Standard Sermons, nos. 21–33.
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Huldrych Zwingli, “Von göttlicher und menschlicher Gerechtigkeit,” in Hauptschriften, vol. 7 (ed. Rudolf Pfister; Zurich: Zwingli, 1942) 31–103.
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Mathew 1-7
The Life of Jesus

Redeemer of the Slaves

Jesus Christ Morningstar

Jesus Christ Morningstar (Photo credit: Wikipedia)


• REDEEMED • Fanny J. Crosby, 1820–1915 • Give thanks to the Lord, for he is good; His love endures forever. Let the redeemed of the Lord say this— (Psalm 107:1, 2) • All my theology is reduced to this narrow compass—Christ Jesus came into this world to save sinners. • —Archibald Alexander • The word redeemed implies the idea of a slave standing on the trader’s auction block being offered to the highest bidder.




• The Red Sea passage, it seems to me, simply typifies the death of Christ as it conquered Satan judicially and released the sinner from the guilt and judgment of sin. It separated the children of Israel from Egypt and introduced them into a life of pilgrimage and trial, just as we are separated from the world and made pilgrims and strangers there.




• “Ye shall be scattered, every man to his own, and shall leave me alone.” • — John 16:32 • Few had fellowship with the sorrows of Gethsemane. The majority of the disciples were not sufficiently advanced in grace to be admitted to behold the mysteries of “the agony.” Occupied with the passover feast at their own houses, they represent the many who live upon the letter, but are mere babes as to the spirit …




• Interest or identification? • I have been crucified with Christ. Gal. 2:20. • The imperative need spiritually is to sign the death-warrant of the disposition of sin, to turn all emotional impressions and intellectual beliefs into a moral verdict against the disposition of sin, viz., my claim to my right to myself. Paul says—“I have been crucified with Christ”; he does not say, ‘I have determined to imitate Jesus Christ,’ or, ‘I will endeavour to follow Him,’ …




• He leadeth me in the paths of righteousness for his name’s sake • Ps. 23:3 • He always has a purpose in His leading. He knows where the bits of green pasture are, and He would lead His flock to these. The way may be rough, but it is the right way to the pasture. “Paths of righteousness” may not be straight paths; but they are paths that lead somewhere—to the right place.


Founded on Jesus Christ

Founded on Jesus Christ (Photo credit: Wikipedia)



The Gospel of Matthew in Its Roman Imperial Context


This collection of scholarly essays tackles a number of questions based on Matthew’s gospel. In what sense does Matthew’s Gospel reflect the colonial situation in which the community found itself after the fall of Jerusalem and the subsequent humiliation of Jews across the Roman Empire? To what extent was Matthew seeking to oppose Rome’s claims to authority and sovereignty over the whole world, to set up alternative systems of power and society, to forge new senses of identity? If Matthew’s community felt itself to be living on the margins of society, where did it see the centre as lying? In Judaism or in Rome? And how did Matthew’s approach to such problems compare with that of Jews who were not followers of Jesus Christ and with that of others, Jews and Gentiles, who were followers?






Abide in LOVE!

Stained glass window of the sacred Heart of Je...

• IN HEAVENLY LOVE ABIDING • Anna L. Warning, 1823–1910 • But because of His great love for us, God, who is rich in mercy, made us alive with Christ even when we were dead in transgressions—it is by grace you have been saved. And seated us with Him in the heavenly realms in Christ Jesus. (Ephesians 2:4–6) •


Abiding in heavenly LOVE! does not mean to look for reward only in transcendent times and places. JESUS became high priest for us, took the seals and keys to reveal the book of LIFE! and over the power of death for us HERE and NOW!-

This jailbraking power of the gospel includes our heavenly heritage of our devine predestinastion, destination and profession for this time and these places here on earth.

Imagine, what this means to You personally in detail??-

I can tell You, what it really and effective means to me. In my role and function as Arch Bishop of the Most Holy ROSARY i posess this heritage and dominion and legacy already. Not only by coming to action according to my dedicated privilegued rights and destinctive status, but evenso in material Bishop´s seat in HIS KINGDOM of GOD!

HAPPY are those who believe even when they still have not seen!-


Who is laying his hands onto the plaugh and looks behind, is not worth doing the work of a Bishop.

• Forgetting those things which are behind … I press toward the mark for the prize of the high calling of God in Christ JesusPhil. 3:13, 14 • It is not by regretting what is irreparable that true work is to be done, but by making the best of what we are. It is not by complaining that we have not the right tools, but by using well the tools we have.

Jesus? (Photo credit: ChrisMcArdle1)

Well, during my first studies in organic farming i practiced to train horses to carry the joke and ty the plaugh. This was very effective and better for the 4 acres of land, i could do in one day´s work, than to use the heavy John Deer Traktor.

I think, this was heavenly work :-).
Today, as an Arch-Bishop i use the traisures and wisdom of fromer trained skills, not to look back in melancholy, but to use these tools for the better growth of the KINGDOM of GOD!
Today we are funding with landmanagement systems, (pat.pending) to bring this knowledge and skills into the hands of developing countrie´s people and to re-fund with CarbonDioxid- certificates to supply our 120 Pastors and 6,000 members of RMI-INDIA and we cooperate with All-India Independant Christian Diocese, with 7,600 chuches and communities!
If You want to partner with us, pls come nder the domain-reselling host with Arch-Bishop ROSARY by clicking on the link just now!
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