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Henoch, apocryphische Bücher der Bibel von LAD Rosenkranz

Gen 5,18–24

Genesis 5,18–24

Douay-Rheims Bible

18 And Jared lived a hundred and sixty-two years, and begot Henoch. 19 And Jared lived after he begot Henoch, eight hundred years, and begot sons and daughters. 20 And all the days of Jared were nine hundred and sixty-two years, and he died. 21 And Henoch lived sixty-five years, and begot Mathusala. 22 And Henoch walked with God: and lived after he begot Mathusala, three hundred years, and begot sons and daughters. 23 And all the days of Henoch were three hundred and sixty-five years. 24 And he walked with God, and was seen no more: because God took him.

Das Buch Henoch / Enoch gehört zu den Apokryphen. Es ist apokalyptischer Natur.

  1. APOKRYPHEN ActAndr Andreasakten ActAndrMatth Andreas- und Matthiasakten ActBarn Barnabasakten ActJoh Johannesakten ActPhil Philippusakten ActPl Paulusakten ActPlThecl Paulus- und Theklaakten ActPt Petrusakten ActPtPl Petrus- und Paulusakten ActThom Thomasakten ActVerc Actus Vercellenses ApkAbr Apokalypse des Abraham ApkBargr griechische Apokalypse des Baruch ApkBarsyr syrische Apokalypse des Baruch ApkElias Apokalypse des Elias ApkEliashbr hebräische Apokalypse des Elias ApkEliaskopt Apokalypse des Elias (koptisches Fragment) ApkMos Apokalypse des Moses ApkPt Apokalypse des Petrus Arist Aristeasbrief AscIs Ascensio Isaiae AssMos Assumptio Mosis 3 Esr 3. Buch Esdras 4 Esr 4. Buch Esdras EvEb Ebioniter-Evangelium EvHebr Hebräer-Evangelium EvNaz Nazoräer-Evangelium EvPt Petrus-Evangelium EvThom Thomas-Evangelium Henäth äthiopisches Henochbuch Hengr griechisches Henochbuch Henhebr hebräisches Henochbuch Henslav slavisches Henochbuch JosAs Joseph und Aseneth Jub Jubiläenbuch KgPt Kerygma Petri Laod Laodicenerbrief 3 Makk 3. Makkabäerbuch 4 Makk 4. Makkabäerbuch MartIs Martyrium des Isaias MartMt Martyrium des Matthäus MartPl Martyrium des Paulus MartPt Martyrium des Petrus MartPtPl Martyrium des Petrus und Paulus OdSal Oden Salomons OrMan Oratio Manasse OrSib Oracula Sibyllina ProtEvJak Protoevangelium des Jakobus TestXII Testamente der 12 Patriarchen As Aser Benj Benjamin Dan Dan Gad Gad Iss Issachar Jos Joseph Jud Juda Lev Levi Naph Naphthali Rub Ruben Sim Simeon Zab Zabulon TestAbr Testament Abrahams TestAd Testament Adams TestSal Testament Salomons VisIs Visio Isaiae VitAd Vita Adae et Evae
  2. QUMRANSCHRIFTEN 1 QDeuta 1. Deuteronomium-Handschrift 1 QDeutb 2. Deuteronomium-Handschrift 1 QDM (= 1 Q 22) Reden des Moses 1 QGnApoc Genesisapokryphon 1 QH Hymnenrolle 1 QIsa 1. Isaias-Handschrift 1 QIsb 2. Isaias-Handschrift 1 QM Kriegsrolle 1 QMyst (= 1 Q 27) Buch der Geheimnisse 1 QpHab Habakuk-Kommentar 1 QpMich Michäas-Kommentar 1 QpSoph (= 1 Q 15) Sophonias-Kommentar 1 QS Sektenregel 1 QSa (= 1 Q 28a) Zusatzregel 1 QSb (= Q 28b) Buch der Segnungen 4 QDeut 32 Deuteronomium-Handschrift, Kap. 32 4 QExa Exodus-Handschrift 4 QFlor Florilegium 4 QPatr Patriarchensegen 4 QpIsa Kommentar zu Is 10,28–11,14 4 QpIsb Kommentar zu Is 5 4 QpIsc Kommentar zu Is 30,15–18 4 QpIsd Kommentar zu Is 54,11–12 4 QpNah Nahum-Kommentar 4 QpOsa Kommentar zu Osee 4,15 4 QpOsb Kommentar zu Osee 2,8, 10,11–13 4 QpPs 37 Kommentar zu Psalm 37 4 QPrNab Gebet des Nabonid (Prayer of Nabonid) 4 QSama 1. Handschrift Samuel I und II 4 QSamb 2. Handschrift Samuel I und II 4 QTest Testimonia 4 QTestLev Testamentum Levi 6 QD Damaskusschrift Damask (Cairo-)Damaskusschrift
  3. SONSTIGE JUDAICA, RABBINICA JosAnt Flavius Josephus Antiquitates JosAp Flavius Josephus Contra Apionem JosBell Flavius Josephus Bellum Judaicum JosVit Flavius Josephus Vita Philo Philo von Alexandrien

Für das rabbinische Schrifttum werden die üblichen Abkürzungen (wie in H. L. Strack, Einleitung in Talmud und Midraš, München 51930, S. IX.XI) verwendet, also z.B.:

              Mischna, Sanh 1,4      Mischna, Traktat Sanhedrin, Kap. 1 § 4
              Tos, Sanh 1,4      Tosephta, Traktat Sanhedrin, Kap. 1 § 4
              bSanh 31a      Babylonischer Talmud, Traktat Sanhedrin, Blatt 31 Spalte 1
              jSanh 2,21b      Jerusalemer (palästinischer) Talmud, Traktat Sanhedrin, Kap. 2, Blatt 21, Spalte 2
  1. APOSTOLISCHE VÄTER, KIRCHENVÄTER, KIRCHENSCHRIFTSTELLER, KIRCHENORDNUNGEN USW

Die griech. Hss des NT sowie die alten Übersetzungen und die Kirchenväter werden abgekürzt wie im Novum Testamentum Graece, ed. E. Nestle et K. Aland (Stuttgart 251963); vgl. aber noch

              Barn      Barnabasbrief
              1 Clem      1. Klemensbrief
              2 Clem      2. Klemensbrief
              ConstAp      Constitutiones Apostolorum
              Didask      Didascalia
              Diog      Diognetbrief
              EusHistEccl      Eusebius, Historia ecclesiastica
              EusVitaConst      Eusebius, Vita Constantini
              Herm      Pastor Hermae
              Herm (m)      Hermas, mandata
              Herm (s)      Hermas, similitudines
              Herm (v)      Hermas, visions
              IgnEph      Ignatios, Epistula ad Ephesios
              IgnMagn      Ignatios, Epistula ad Magnesios
              IgnPhld      Ignatios, Epistula ad Philadelphenses
              IgnPol      Ignatios, Epistula ad Polycarpum
              IgnRom      Ignatios, Epistula ad Romanos
              IgnSm      Ignatios, Epistula ad Smyrnaeos
              IgnTrall      Ignatios, Epistula ad Trallianos
              IrenHaer      Irenäus, Adversus Haereses
              JustApol      Justin, Apologia
              JustTryph      Justin, Dialog mit Tryphon
              MartPol      Martyrium Polycarpi
              OrContrCels      Origenes, Contra Celsum
              Pap      Papias
              Polyk      Epistula Polycarpi
              PsClemHom      Pseudoklementinische Homilien
              PsClemRecogn      Pseudoklementinische Rekognitionen
  1. GNOSTISCHE LITERATUR ApocrJoh Apocryphon Johannis BG Berolinensis gnosticus (Pap. Ber. 8502, ed. W. Till) CanPr The Canonical Prayerbook of the Mandaeans CHerm Corpus Hermeticum EvPhil Philippus-Evangelium EvThom Thomas-Evangelium EvVer Evangelium Veritatis Ginza Ginza (Das große Buch der Mandäer) JBMand Das Johannesbuch der Mandäer MandLit Mandäische Liturgien PistSoph Pistis Sophia WArch Das Wesen der Archonten (siehe auch oben unter „Apokryphen“)

III. Ausgaben, Sammelwerke, Zeitschriften usw

              AABerlin      Abhandlungen der Deutschen (bis 1944: Preußischen) Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin
              AAGött      Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen
              AAHdbg      Abhandlungen der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Heidelberg
              AALpg      Abhandlungen der Sächsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Leipzig
              AAMainz      Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften und Literatur, Mainz
              AAMünch      Abhandlungen der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, München
              AASOR      The Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research
              AAWien      Abhandlungen der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien
              AB I, II, III      H. Schürmann, Quellenkritische Untersuchung des lukanischen Abendmahlberichtes Lk 22,7–38:
              I. Der Paschamahlbericht Lk 22, (7–14.) 15–18 (NtlAbh XIX/5), Münster 31980:
              II. Der Einsetzungsbericht Lk 22,19–20 (NtlAbh XX/4), Münster 21970:
              III. Jesu Abschiedsrede Lk 22,21–38 (NtlAbh XX/5), Münster 21977
              AbhThANT      Abhandlungen zur Theologie des Alten und Neuen Testaments
              AER      The American Ecclesiastical Review
              AGSU      Arbeiten zur Geschichte des Spätjudentums und Urchristentums
              AJA      American Journal of Archaeology
              AJTh      American Journal of Theology
              AnBib      Analecta Biblica
              Ang      Angelicum
              Angelos      Angelos. Archiv für neutestamentl. Zeitgeschichte und Kulturkunde
              AnglThR      Anglican Theological Review
              AnLov      Analecta Lovaniensia Biblica et Orientalia
              AnOr      Analecta Orientalia
              Antike      Die Antike. Zeitschrift für Kunst und Kultur des klassischen Altertums
              Anton      Antonianum
              ArLitg      Archiv für Liturgiewissenschaft
              ARW      Archiv für Religionswissenschaft
              ASNU      Acta Seminarii Neotestamentici Upsaliensis
              ATD      Das Alte Testament Deutsch. Göttingen 1949ff
              AThANT      Abhandlungen zur Theologie des Alten und Neuen Testaments
              AthDan      Acta Theologica Danica
              AtlAbh      Alttestamentliche Abhandlungen
              BA      The Biblical Archaeologist
              BASOR      The Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research
              BBB      Bonner Biblische Beiträge
              Bch      The Beginnings of Christianity I–V, ed. F. J. F. Jackson – K. Lake, London
              BÉO      Bulletin d’Études Orientales
              BENT      Beiträge zur Einleitung in das NT
              BEvTh      Beiträge zur Evangelischen Theologie
              BEvThS      Bulletin of Evangelical Theological Society
              BFchTh      Beiträge zur Förderung christlicher Theologie
              BGeschEx      Beiträge zur Geschichte der neutestamentlichen (ab H. 2: biblischen) Exegese
              BHTh      Beiträge zur historischen Theologie
              Bib      Biblica
              Bibvchr      Bible et vie chrétienne
              BIES      Bulletin of the Israel Exploration Society
              BILLERBECK      H. Strack – P. Billerbeck, Kommentar zum Neuen Testament aus Talmud und Midrasch
              BJRL      The Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
              BKATNoth      Bibl. Kommentar. Altes Testament, hrsg. von M. Noth 1955ff
              Black’sNTComm      Black’s New Testament Commentaries, General Editor: H. Chadwick, London 1958
              BLASS-DEBR      F. Blass, Grammatik des neutestamentl. Griechisch, bearb. von A. Debrunner, Göttingen 91954
              BO      Biblia et Oriente
              BonnerNT      Die Hl. Schrift des NT, hrsg. von F. Tillmann, Bonn
              BR      Biblical Review
              BSt      Biblische Studien
              BuK      Bibel und Kirche
              BuL      Bibel und Leben
              BWANT      Beiträge zur Wissenschaft vom Alten und Neuen Testament
              BZ      Biblische Zeitschrift
              BZAW      Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft
              BZNW      Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft
              CAB      Cahiers d’Archéologie Biblique
              Cath      Catholica
              CathBibEnc      Catholic Biblical Encyclopedia, New York 1950
              CBQ      Catholic Biblical Quarterly
              CC      Corpus Christianorum, Turnhout-Paris
              CharlesApocr      The Apocrypha and Pseudoepigrapha of the Old Testament in English, ed. R. H. Charles, 1913
              ChQR      The Church Quarterly Review
              CIG      Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum
              CIJ      Corpus Inscriptionum Judaecarum
              ClerRev      Clergy Review
              ColBG      Collationes Brugenses et Gandavenses
              ColBib      Collectanea Biblica
              ColMech      Collectanea Mechliniensia
              CommduNT      Commentaire du Nouveau Testament, hrsg. von P. Bonnard, O. Cullmann u.a., Neuchâtel – Paris
              CommNTKampen      Commentaar op het Nieuwe Testament, hrsg. von S. Greijdanus en F. W. Grosheide, Kampen 1954
              ComViat      Communio Viatorum
              ConiNeot      Coniectanea Neotestamentica
              CSCO      Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium
              CSEL      Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum, Wien
              CSS      Cursus Scripturae Sacrae
              DAB      Dictionnaire d’Archéologie biblique
              DictBibGrant      A Dictionary of the Bible I–V, ed. J. Hastings – Fr. Grant – H. H. Rowley
              DictBibHastings      A Dictionary of the Bible, ed. J. Hastings
              DictBible      Dictionnaire de la Bible
              DictBibleSuppl      Dictionnaire de la Bible, Supplément
              DLZ      Deutsche Literaturzeitung
              DThC      Dictionnaire de Théologie catholique
              DunwoodieR      Dunwoodie Review
              EchtBib      Echter-Bibel, hrsg. von F. Nötscher und K. Staab, Würzburg 1947ff
              EK      Evangelisches Kirchenlexikon
              EncBib      Encyclopaedia Biblica, ed. T. K. Cheyne and J. Black 1899ff
              EncBibJer      Encyclopaedia Biblica, Jerusalem 1950ff
              EnchBib      Enchiridion Biblicum
              EncJud      Encyclopaedia Judaica, hrsg. von J. Klatzkin und J. Ellbogen, Charlottenburg 1928ff
              Er      Eranos-Jahrbuch, Zürich
              ErfThSt      Erfurter Theologische Studien
              EstBib      Estudios Biblicos
              EstEcl      Estudios Eclesiasticos
              ÉtBib      Études Bibliques
              ÉtHPhR      Études d’Histoire et de Philosophie Religieuses
              EThLov      Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses
              ÉThRel      Études Théologiques et Religieuses
              EvK      Evangelisches Kirchenlexikon
              EvTh      Evangelische Theologie
              Exp      The Expositor
              ExpT      The Expository Times
              FGntlKan      Forschungen zur Geschichte des neutestamentlichen Kanons
              FreiThSt      Freiburger Theologische Studien
              FRLANT      Forschungen zur Religion und Literatur des Alten und Neuen Testaments
              FZThPh      Freiburger Zeitschrift für Theologie und Philosophie (bis 1954: Divus Thomas)
              GALLINGBibRLex      Biblisches Reallexikon, hrsg. von K. Galling
              GCS      Die griechischen christlichen Schriftsteller der ersten drei Jahrhunderte, Berlin
              GENESIUSHwb      W. Genesius – F. Buhl, Hebräisches und Aramäisches Handwörterbuch über das Alte Testament
              GGA      Göttinger Gelehrte Anzeigen
              Greg      Gregorianum
              GuL      Geist und Leben
              HAAGBibLex      Bibellexikon, hrsg. von H. Haag
              HandbAT      Handbuch zum AT, hrsg. von O. Eissfeldt
              HandbNT      Handbuch zum NT, begr. von H. Lietzmann, hrsg. von G. Bornkamm
              HarvThR      The Harvard Theological Review
              HarvThSt      The Harvard Theological Studies
              HATCH-Redp      A Concordance to the Septuagint and other Greek versions of the Old Testament, by E. Hatch and H. Redpath
              Hennecke-Schneemeleher      E. Hennecke, W. Schneemelcher, Neutestamentliche Apokryphen in deutscher Übersetzung I–II
              HibJ      The Hibbert Journal
              HistJ      Historisches Jahrbuch
              HistZ      Historische Zeitschrift
              HOLTZMANNNT      O. Holtzmann, Das NT nach dem Stuttgarter griech. Text übersetzt und erklärt
              HUCA      Hebrew Union College Annual
              ICC      The International Critical Commentary on the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testament, ed. S. R. Driver
              IG      Inscriptiones Graecae
              IKZ      Internationale Kirchliche Zeitschrift
              Interpr      Interpretation
              InterprBib      The Interpreter’s Bible, Editor: G. A. Buttrcik, New York – Nashville 1952
              InterprDictBib      The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible
              IThQ      The Irish Theological Quarterly
              IER      The Irish Ecclesiastical Record
              IZBG      Internationale Zeitschriftenschau für Bibelwissenschaft und Grenzgebiete
              JACKSON-LAKE      F. J. F. Jackson – K. Lake, The Beginnings of Christianity. Part I: The Acts of the Apostels I–V, London 1920ff
              JAC      Jahrbuch für Antike und Christentum
              JAOS      The Journal of the American Oriental Society
              JASTROW, M.,      M. Jastrow, A Dictionary of the Targumim
              JBL      Journal of Biblical Literature
              JBR      The Journal of Bible and Religion
              JewEnc      The Jewish Encyclopedia
              JJS      The Journal of Jewish Studies
              JPOS      The Journal of Palestine Oriental Society
              JpTh      Jahrbuch für protestantische Theologie
              JQR      The Jewish Quarterly Review
              JR      Journal of Religion
              JSS      Journal of Semitic Studies
              JThSt      Journal of Theological Studies
              Jud      Judaica
              KeDog      Kerygma und Dogma
              KlT      Kleine Texte für Vorlesungen und Übungen, hrsg. von H. Lietzmann
              KommNTMeyer      Kritisch-exegetischer Kommentar über das NT, begr. von H. A. W. Meyer
              KommNTZahn      Kommentar zum NT, hrsg. von Th. Zahn
              LEVYWb      J. Levy, Wörterbuch über die Talmudim und Midraschim
              LThK      Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche
              LexVTL      L. Koehler – W. Baumgartner, Lexicon in VT Libros
              LIDDELL-SCOTT      A Greek-English Lexicon, ed. H. G. Liddell and R. Scott
              LumVi      Lumière et Vie, S. Alban Leysse
              LumViBrug      Lumière et Vie, Abbaye S. André les Bruges
              MaisD      La Maison Dieu
              MANDELKERNConc      S. Mandelkern, Veteris Testamenti Concordantiae Hebraicae atque Chaldaicae
              MO      Le Monde Oriental
              MOFFATTNTC      The Moffatt New Testament Commentary
              MOULT-MILL      J. H. Moulton and G. Milligan, The Vocabulary of the Greek Testament
              MüThSt      Münchner Theologische Studien
              MüThZ      Münchner Theologische Zeitschrift
              NAG      Nachrichten der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen
              NedGerefTydskr      Nederduitse gereformeerde teologiese tydskrif
              NedThT      Nederlands Theologisch Tijdschrift
              NewICNT      The New International Commentary on the New Testament, hrsg. von N. B. Stonehouse, Grand Rapids 1951ff
              NKZ      Neue Kirchliche Zeitschrift
              NorTT      Norsk Teologisk Tidsskrift
              NRTh      Nouvelle Revue Théologique
              NSNU      Nuntius Sodalicii Neotestamentici Upsaliensis
              NT      Novum Testamentum
              NTA      New Testament Abstracts
              NTCommHendr      New Testament Commentary, by W. Hendriksen, Grand Rapids
              NTD      Das Neue Testament Deutsch, Göttingen
              NtlAbh      Neutestamentliche Abhandlungen
              NTSt      New Testament Studies
              NTTSt      New Testament Tools and Studies
              Numen      Numen, International Review for the History of Religion
              OLZ      Orientalistische Literaturzeitung
              Or      Orientalia, Commentarii Periodici Pontificii Instituti Biblici
              OrChr      Oriens Christianus
              OrChrAn      Orientalia Christiana Analecta
              OrChrP      Orientalia Christiana Periodica
              OSt      Oxford Studies in the Synoptic Problem, ed. W. Sanday
              OTS      Oudtestamentische Studien
              PastBon      Pastor Bonus
              PAULY-WISSOWA      A. Pauly, Realencyklopädie der klassischen Altertumswissenschaften
              PG      Migne, Patrologia, series graeca
              PJ      Palästina-Jahrbuch
              PL      Migne, Patrologia, series latina
              POr      Patrologia Orientalis
              PrincThR      Princeton Theological Review
              PS      Patrologia Syriaca
              Quaest. disp.      Quaestiones disputatae
              RAC      Reallexikon für Antike und Christentum
              RB      Revue Biblique
              RBén      Revue Bénédictine
              RBib      Recherches Bibliques
              RCuBib      Revista de Cultura Biblica
              RechScR      Recherches de Science Religieuse
              RegNT      Regensburger Neues Testament
              RepBib      Repetitorium Biblicum Medii Aevi
              RÉS      Revue des Études Sémitiques
              RevB      Revista biblica, Buenos Aires
              RGG      Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart
              RHE      Revue d’Histoire Ecclésiastique
              RHPhilRel      Revue d’Histoire et de Philosophie Religieuse
              RHLR      Revue d’Histoire et de Litt. Religieuse
              RHR      Revue de l’Histoire des Religions
              RIESSLER      P. Rießler, Altjüdisches Schrifttum außerhalb der Bibel
              RivB      Rivista biblica, Rom
              RNT      Regensburger Neues Testament
              RQ      Römische Quartalschrift
              RQum      Revue de Qumran
              RR      Review of Religion
              RScPhTh      Revue des Sciences Philosophiques et Theologiques
              RScR      Revue des Sciences Religieuses
              RThPh      Revue de Théologie et de Philosophie
              RThQR      Revue de Théologie et de Questions Religieuses
              RVV      Religionsgeschichtliche Versuche und Vorarbeiten
              SABerlin      Sitzungsberichte der Deutschen (bis 1944: Preußischen) Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin
              SAHdb      Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften
              SAMünch      Sitzungsberichte der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, München
              SAWien      Sitzungsberichte der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien
              ScEccl      Sciences Ecclésiastiques
              SChr      Sources Chrétiennes, Paris
              ScottJTh      Scottish Journal of Theology
              STANT      Studien zum Alten und Neuen Testament
              StBSt      Stuttgarter Bibelstudien
              StBibFr      Studii Biblici Franciscani
              StBibTh      Studien zur Biblischen Theologie
              StEv      Studia Evangelica (Berlin 1959ff)
              StTh      Studia Theologica
              SupplNT      Supplements to Novum Testamentum
              SupplVT      Supplements to Vetus Testamentum
              SvExA      Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok
              SvTK      Svensk Teological Kuartalskrift
              SyBibU      Symbolae Biblicae Upsalienses
              SyOs      Symbolae Osloenses
              ThB      Theologische Bibliothek
              ThBl      Theologische Blätter
              ThDig      Theological Digest
              ThGl      Theologie und Glaube
              ThHandkNT      Theologischer Handkommentar zum Neuen Testament, neu hrsg. unter der Leitung von E. Fascher, Berlin 1957
              ThK      Theologischer Kommentar, hrsg. von A. Wikenhauser und A. Vögtle
              ThLBl      Theologisches Literaturblatt
              ThLZ      Theologische Literaturzeitung
              ThPh      Theologie und Philosophie (= Scholastik Jg. 41 [1966]ff)
              ThQ      Theologische Quartalschrift
              ThRev      Theologische Revue
              ThRu      Theologische Rundschau
              ThSt      Theological Studies
              ThStK      Theologische Studien und Kritiken
              ThStUt      Theologische Studien, Utrecht
              ThStZoll      Theologische Studien, Zollikon
              ThT      Theologisch Tijdschrift
              ThuPh      Theologie und Philosophie (bis 1965: Scholastik)
              ThWb      Theologisches Wörterbuch zum NT
              ThZ      Theologische Zeitschrift
              TrThSt      Trierer Theologische Studien
              TrThZ      Trierer Theologische Zeitschrift
              TrU      H. Schürmann, Traditionsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen zu den synoptischen Evangelien. Beiträge (Düsseldorf 1968)
              TU      Texte und Untersuchungen
              UG      H. Schürmann, Ursprung und Gestalt. Erörterungen und Besinnungen zum Neuen Testament (Düsseldorf 1969)
              UNT      Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament
              UPPsUÅ      Uppsala Universitets Årsskrift
              VD      Verbum Domini
              VerkF      Verkündigung und Forschung
              VigChr      Vigiliae Christianae
              ViSpir      La Vie spirituelle
              VS      Verbum Salutis, begr. von J. Huby, hrsg. von S. Lyonnet, Paris
              VT      Vetus Testamentum
              WissMonANT      Wissenschaftliche Monographien zum Alten und Neuen Testament
              WO      DieWelt des Orients
              WUNT      Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament
              ZA      Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und verwandte Gebiete
              ZAW      Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft
              ZDMG      Zeitschrift der deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft
              ZDPV      Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins
              ZKG      Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte
              ZKTh      Zeitschrift für katholische Theologie
              ZNW      Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft
              ZRGg      Zeitschrift für Religions- und Geistesgeschichte
              ZThK      Zeitschrift für Theologie und Kirche
              ZsystTh      Zeitschrift für systematische Theologie
              ZwTh      Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Theologie

Kommentare zu Lk werden nur mit dem Namen des Verfassers zitiert, wenn es sich um eine Kommentierung der gleichen Textstelle handelt; sonst ist dem Verfassemamen die Seitenzahl hinzugefügt.
Mit abgekürztem Titel zitierte Literatur ist mit Hilfe des Literaturverzeichnisses zu verifizieren.
Verfassernamen mit „a.a.O.“ verweisen auf die Literaturangaben am Kopf der betreffenden Perikope; hochgestellte Kleinbuchstaben (a,b,c usw.) heben diese Literaturangaben heraus. Wenn mit „a.a.O.“ auf Literaturangaben anderen Orts verwiesen wird, macht ein Index (z.B.: a.a.O.a; oder: S. 500 A.50) auf jene Fundstelle aufmerksam.

Schürmann, H. (1984–1994). Das Lukasevangelium. (J. Gnilka & L. Oberlinner, Hrsg.) (Sonderausgabe, Bd. 1, S. xlii–li). Freiburg im Breisgau: Verlag Herder.

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Henoch, 1. Buch:

ENOCH, FIRST BOOK OF (חנוך, chnwk; Ενώχ, Enōch). Often simply called the book of Enoch. A pseudepigraphal, apocalyptic collection of narratives and visions ascribed to Enoch (Gen 5:18–24), through which Enoch receives wisdom from God. First Enoch is canonical for the Ethiopian Orthodox church but not for any other Christian or Jewish traditions.

Overview
First Enoch resembles certain Old Testament books in form and thought, and it may have influenced the authors of the New Testament. First Enoch seems to have especially influenced early Christian understandings of angels and the phrase “Son of Man,” and 1 Enoch is even quoted in Jude 14–15. The book seems to have been popular in Judaism and Christianity during the centuries immediately preceding and following Jesus’ birth: First Enoch provides a more detailed picture of the biblical world of this period—especially with regard to theology.

Old Testament Parallels
First Enoch pseudonymously attributes its visions and knowledge to the Enoch of Genesis. Genesis 5:18–24 identifies Enoch as the father of Methuselah. Genesis 5:23–24 states, “All the days of Enoch were 365 years. Enoch walked about with God, then he was no more because God took him.” The first instance of “God” in the Hebrew could also be translated as “the gods” or “the spiritual beings” (אֱלֹהִים, elohim), which may indicate that Enoch spent time with other heavenly beings. First Enoch reinforces this interpretation as it depicts Enoch interacting with the angels who are heavenly beings.
The Old Testament says nothing more about Enoch outside of Gen 5, apart from including him in a list of names in 1 Chr 1:3. However, later Enochic literature demonstrates that he was a significant figure in early Judaism and likely in early Christianity. Apart from Elijah, who went up to heaven in a whirlwind (2 Kgs 2:11), Enoch is the only figure in the Old Testament who is said to have not died (compare Gen 5:24). Enochic literature (which includes the other books ascribed to Enoch, Jubilees and Book of Giants) picks up on this and portrays Enoch as an authoritative visionary and transmitter of wisdom.
First Enoch also has affinities with other books of the Old Testament that deal with visions and wisdom. The book has strong ties with the visionary and apocalyptic portions of the Old Testament, which transmit wisdom and messages from God through dream and vision interpretation and through symbolic language representing people, places, things, and events. Daniel, Isaiah, and Ezekiel all include visions that are symbolic and apocalyptic. In particular, Dan 7–12 shares several literary and theological traits with 1 Enoch:

• Both texts are shaped by an apocalyptic worldview that juxtaposes good and evil, commenting especially on the abuse of power.
• Both Daniel 7 and 1 Enoch 14–15 include visions in which God is enthroned; however, the imagery in the two texts is different. Enoch’s vision is set in heaven and includes the heavenly beings (like the throne vision in Rev 4) while Daniel’s vision is not set in heaven and includes more earthly images (beasts with human features).

Additionally, both Dan 7:13 and 1 Enoch 37–71 speak of a Son of Man. In Daniel 7:13, “one like a Son of Man” is given authority over all peoples and nations. In 1 Enoch 71 the Son of Man is proclaimed to be righteous, and all who are righteous will follow his path. In both cases, the one called Son of Man is given authority; in Daniel the authority is power over people and nations, while in 1 Enoch that authority appears to be wisdom and access to eternal peace; eternal unity with the Son of Man is also mentioned. (Just as Ezekiel uses the term “son of man” simply as a reference for the prophet, as a general term for a person rather than a full title, 1 Enoch does the same at 1 Enoch 60:10 [compare Ezek 2:1].)
Ezekiel and Isaiah share the enthronement imagery that 1 Enoch uses, as well as the transmission of authority from God to a human. (This is the case even though Ezekiel and Isaiah are primarily prophetic books in genre, rather than specifically apocalyptic books. Examples are:

• In Isaiah 6, the prophet sees the Lord enthroned and served by seraphim. One of the seraphim burns Isaiah’s lips with hot coal to purify them so that he can proclaim God’s message of repentance to the people.
• Ezekiel 1 contains imagery akin to Dan 7 and Rev 4, with creatures that look like earthly animals.
• Ezekiel 1:26–28 contains an image of God enthroned.
• In Ezekiel 2:3, God sends Ezekiel to proclaim His words to rebellious people.

New Testament Parallels
First Enoch seems to have influenced the New Testament authors, especially in their notions of the final judgment. Similarly to 1 Enoch, the book of Jude juxtaposes the godly with the ungodly and notes the ungodly’s major role in causing the problems of the world.
Jude 14–15, quoting 1 Enoch 1:9, states, “Behold, he will arrive with ten million of the holy ones in order to execute judgment upon all. He will destroy the wicked ones and censure all flesh on account of everything that they have done, that which the sinners and the wicked ones commented against him” (compare Isaac, “1 [Ethiopic Apocalypse of] Enoch”).
Revelation’s overall message and ideas about the final judgment also parallel the book of 1 Enoch, especially because Revelation too is apocalyptic in genre. The juxtaposition of good and evil in the context of a final judgment is a strong theme in both works. The binding of Satan in Rev 20 parallels 1 Enoch 10:11–12—in which God tells Michael the archangel to bind the demon Semyaza, and those who are with him who fornicated with women, for 70 years. The ideas of demons inciting evil and a final judgment for those who propagate evil also parallels 1 Enoch.
Son of Man language in 1 Enoch is often compared to that of the New Testament. Although the New Testament books that mention the Son of Man are influenced by 1 Enoch—especially Mark—they are also heavily influenced by Daniel 7. First Enoch especially parallels the New Testament usage of Son of Man in its notion of the Son of Man as a judge and vindicator of the righteous; this idea is more direct in 1 Enoch than Daniel (Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, 83–84).

Literary Synopsis of 1 Enoch
First Enoch, as a collection of writings, is usually divided into five parts based on the literary qualities and themes. These five parts were probably written by multiple authors. It is difficult to identify when or where these parts developed or were edited together. However, each part contributes to the theme of good and evil uniquely through different literary styles and interests.

Chapters 1–36: “The Book of the Watchers”
“The Book of the Watchers” employs narrative to introduce ideas about corruption, fallen angels, and the final judgment. Chapters 1–5 provide an introduction to the section and the book in its entirety, pseudonymously claiming that the book is the blessing of Enoch, which is passed on to the righteous. Chapters 6–36 then introduce the angels. The fallen angels are called the “sons of God” of Gen 6—the Watchers—who corrupted people through fornication and magic. Enoch has a dream and intercedes for the fallen angels, but he is unsuccessful. The text then predicts their destruction.

Chapters 37–71: “The Similitudes” or “Parables” or “The Similitudes of Enoch”
The content of “The Similitudes” overlaps with the beginning of “The Book of the Watchers” and with “The Astrological Treatise” (chapters 72–83) in its descriptions of Enoch’s cosmic journey and astrology. However, it also introduces new material through heavenly visions, focusing on final judgment. This section is particularly relevant to New Testament scholarship as it describes the Son of Man in conjunction with the final judgment.

Chapters 72–82: The “Astronomical Enoch” or “The Book of the Luminaries” or “The Book of the Heavenly Luminaries”
This section should not be confused with the separate work from the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Words of the Luminaries.
The “Astronomical Enoch” discusses the sun, moon, and stars, and introduces a solar calendar. 1 Enoch 80 declares that, in the final days, the order of the cosmos will be upset. Enoch warns Methuselah about the existence of sinners who also miscalculate days and intervals of time (1 Enoch 82; compare (1 Enoch 80).

Chapters 83–90: “The Dream Visions” of “Book of Dreams” or “Animal Apocalypse”
In “The Dream Visions,” Enoch relates dreams he had before his marriage. In the first vision (1 Enoch 83–84), he saw the flood that destroyed the world. In the second, he tells the history of the world from Adam to the final judgment in the form of an allegory. Similar to Daniel 7 and Revelation, animal imagery represents humans:

• Sheep represent the Israelites;
• Beasts and birds of prey symbolize Israel’s oppressors;
• A horned sheep represents a Jewish leader; and
• A horned bull represents the Messiah.

This section also parallels Revelation in its introduction of the throne of judgment and the new Jerusalem.

Chapters 92–105: “The Epistle of Enoch” or “Enoch’s Testament”
“The Epistle of Enoch” describes the blessings of the righteous and the woes of sinners. It appeals to the righteous to remain steadfast before the judgment occurs. This part includes a section called “The Apocalypse of Weeks” (1 Enoch 91:12–17; 93:1–10), which describes the events of 10 weeks in which wickedness will prevail on the earth. The text claims that after those weeks, righteousness will prevail forever—a pattern that also may resonate with Revelation.

Chapters 106–108: Epilogue or “Book of Noah”
This section is an epilogue, or appendix, that includes two chapters about Noah (106–107). Since the flood was a form of judgment, Noah’s birth is viewed as a promise of salvation for the righteous who will survive the final judgment. The final chapter references the earlier parts as a means of concluding the book as a whole, and promises blessings for the righteous and punishment for sinners.

Development of the Text
The exact development of 1 Enoch is unknown; it is probably a composite of several authors’ works. A full copy of the text survives only in Ethiopic. Fragments of the text also exist in Greek and Aramaic.

Dead Sea Scrolls Copies
The earliest extant copies of portions of 1 Enoch are those written in Aramaic that were found among the Dead Sea Scrolls (4Q201–202, 4Q204–207, 4Q212), with additional copies of Astronomical Enoch being found in Aramaic (4Q208–211). (The version of Astronomical Enoch preserved from Qumran is longer than the Ethiopic version of the same section, which means that the Qumran Astronomical Enoch could be counted as a separate work of Enochic literature or as adding to the total count of 1 Enoch copies at Qumran). It is primarily because of the existence of these manuscripts that many now conclude that the book was originally written in Aramaic, then later translated into Greek, and from the Greek translated into Ethiopic (Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, xxiii—xxiv).
The transmission history of 1 Enoch is especially evident in Astronomical Enoch, whose calculations are much more precise in the Aramaic version from Qumran: Milik describes the data in the Ethiopic version as “fragmentary and confused” and proposes that a Greek translator had abridged and simplified the tables in the Aramaic original prior to a third translation into Ethiopic (Milik, The Books of Enoch, 276). (This is the case whether Astronomical Enoch is viewed as a separate work from 1 Enoch among the scrolls or not since this portion of the text is the same in both, as is most of the text, leading to the conclusion that Astronomical Enoch was likely edited down in the process of becoming the third book of 1 Enoch.)
It is also possible that fragments of a Greek version of 1 Enoch were found among the Dead Sea Scrolls (7Q8; 7Q11–14), which would indicate that at least part of it was translated into Greek by AD 70, but the identification of these fragments is uncertain. A precise date for the Greek from which the Ethiopic was translated is unknown (VanderKam and Flint, The Meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls, 195). It is also unknown when the Greek was translated into Ethiopic, but the fifth or sixth century AD are proposed as dates. It is not certain that the manuscript tradition went from Greek to Ethiopic; it could have gone from Aramaic to Ethiopic, but the Greek path seems most likely. (There also are additional Greek fragments, not from the Dead Sea Scrolls, but these are much later.)
The precise relationship of the nonbiblical, Enochic tradition Book of Giants (1Q23–24, 2Q26, 4Q203, 4Q530–533), which also is found among the Dead Sea Scrolls, to the other Enochic tradition manuscripts is unknown.

Form of the Ethiopic Version
The earliest full copy of 1 Enoch in the Ethiopic language contains all five distinct books, ordered (Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination, 43):

  1. The Book of the Watchers (1–36)
  2. The Similitudes of Enoch (37–71)
  3. The Astronomical Book (72–82)
  4. The Book of Dreams (83–90)
  5. The Epistle of Enoch (91–108), which contains the Apocalypse of Weeks (93:1–10, 91:11–17) and the epilogue (106–108)

Composition
The Astronomical Book may be the earliest of the Enochic writings, followed by the Book of the Watchers; both of these texts can be dated to the late third or early second century BC, prior to the Maccabean revolt (Collins, Apocalypticism in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 18–19). For those who hold to a late date for portions of Daniel, the Astronomical Book and Book of Watchers predate the apocalyptic portions of the book of Daniel.
Since it is not included among the Dead Sea Scrolls (ca. 250 BC–AD 50), the Similitudes of Enoch could then be understood as the most recent of the books of 1 Enoch. VanderKam dates it between the first century BC and the first century AD (VanderKam, “1 Enoch, Enochic Motifs, and Enoch in Early Christian Literature,” 33); Collins places it more specifically in the early to middle first century AD (Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination, 178). The remaining books of 1 Enoch would then be dated in between the early dates for Astronomical Book and Book of the Watchers and the later date of Similitudes.
Unlike the earliest two books in 1 Enoch (Astronomical Book and Book of Watchers), which were highly cosmological in scope, the Apocalypse of Weeks (which is part of the Epistle of Enoch) takes a distinctly historical approach, organizing world history and eschatology into what the work understands as preordained millennia and promising salvation for the few righteous elect (Collins, Apocalypticism in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 21). This is similar to the Book of Dreams, which suggests its dating should be similar.
The Book of Dreams likely comes out of the period of the Maccabean revolt in the second century BC, as it seems to use symbolic language in parallel to the events of the revolt. The Epistle of Enoch is likely roughly contemporary with the Book of Dreams (VanderKam, “1 Enoch,” 33). In addition, the Enochic work Book of the Giants was likely written in the first century BC (VanderKam, “1 Enoch,” 33, 34).

Character and Content
The five books of Enoch seem to represent a collection of similarly themed Apocalyptic books from various places written over the course of several centuries (Charlesworth, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha and the New Testament, 31). The books that make up 1 Enoch—specifically the Book of the Watchers and the Similitudes of Enoch—have so greatly influenced Hellenistic second temple Judaism and Early Christianity that Nickelsburg argues that it is “the most important Jewish text of the Graeco-Roman Period” (Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, xxiii). These early Enochic materials use narrative to present answers to theological questions—such as the origin of evil and the sovereignty of God in the face of human chaos. These narratives also provide foundations for later Judaeo-Christian ideas about angels, fallen angels, and the fate of angelic beings.

Angelic Hierarchy
The Book of the Watchers, one of the earliest Enochic writings, describes a complex hierarchy of angels. The story of the Watchers expands upon the reference to “sons of God” and Nephilim of Gen 6:1–4 and the flood account. In the Book of Watchers, angels lead Enoch on a tour of heaven and “the hidden regions of the cosmos,” (Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination, 58). In addition to Michael and Gabriel, who appear in the apocalyptic portion of Daniel, The Book of the Watchers lists Suriel, Uriel, Raphael, Raguel, Saraqael, and Zotiel as angelic beings loyal to God, who do His bidding, and have specific domains entrusted to their charge. For example, Michael is given guardianship of the nation of Israel (1 Enoch 20:5), and Gabriel is in charge of the order of cherubim (1 Enoch 20:7). Michael, Gabriel, and Raphael are tasked with binding the rebel angels until judgment day (1 Enoch 10:4, 12) and destroying the Nephilim (1 Enoch 10:9). In addition, when Enoch visits the heavenly throne room, he witnesses “fiery Cherubim” (1 Enoch 14:11) and “ten thousand times ten thousand” (1 Enoch 14:22) additional angelic beings identified as “Holy Ones” who never left the presence of God (1 Enoch 14:23).
The Similitudes, a later composition, describes the host of angels as “a thousand thousands and ten thousand times ten thousand, a multitude beyond reckoning” (1 Enoch 40:1) Beyond these, four angels stand out as unique (Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, and Phanuel). They are described as figures surrounding the throne of God on all four sides, singing unique songs, each with its own purpose. These four rank as archangels—chiefs among the angels (1 Enoch 40:10; 70:3). (An angel also by the name of Raphael is a main character in the book of Tobit.)
The Similitudes also identify other divisions of angels:

• Cherubim;
• Seraphim;
• Ophannim;
• Angels of power; and
• Angels of principalities.

It also talks about the Chosen One, also called the Son of Man (1 Enoch 61:10), whom it does not name directly.

Fallen Angels and Evil Spirits
The Book of the Watchers also introduces rebellious angels. The story describes 200 angels led by the angels Semyaza and Azazel, who procreated with human women, fathered the Nephilim, and were responsible for warfare, promiscuity, astrology, and sorcery on earth (1 Enoch 8:1–3). The text doesn’t call the fallen angels demons but identifies the Nephilim as evil spirits, a corruption of both humanity and heavenly beings and a source of violence and sorrow upon the earth (1 Enoch 15:11). The Similitudes brings the figure of Satan into the narrative, though he is not present in the Book of the Watchers. In the Similitudes, an angel tells Enoch that Azazel and the other rebel angels “became servants of Satan, and led astray those who dwell on dry ground” (1 Enoch 54:6).

Judgment Day, Divine Punishment, and Resurrection
VanderKam identifies the angelic interpretation of Gen 6 with its account of divine judgment as “the greatest contribution of the Enochic apocalyptic tradition to early Christian thought” (VanderKam, “1 Enoch” 100). In the Book of the Watchers, God carries out His ultimate judgment against the rebel angels (1 Enoch 10:9), those “who were not righteous but sinners, who were complete in transgression [or godless]” (1 Enoch 22:13), and even against transgressing parts of creation itself (1 Enoch 21:6).
In Enoch’s tour of the cosmos, he sees different realms with varying degrees of beauty or terror that were set aside either as resting places or prisons for the righteous and unrighteous (both human and angelic), who await the day of judgment. First Enoch is adamant that those who choose to be wicked will be punished for their actions—if not in life, then certainly in death.
In addition to posthumous places of rest or punishment, The Book of Watchers seems to anticipate resurrection on the day of judgment (Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, 306). On that day, the wicked of humanity and angels will be cast into the “abyss of fire” forever (1 Enoch 10:13 compare 21:11) while the righteous “will rejoice greatly and be glad, and they will enter into the sanctuary … and they will live a long life upon the earth … and torments and plagues and suffering will not touch them” (1 Enoch 25:6). The Similitudes expand upon these hints of resurrection (compare Collins, “Jewish Apocalypses,” 28). The Similitudes envisions a heavenly dwelling place where the resurrected righteous eternally coexist with God’s angels (e.g., 1 Enoch 39:5)

Son of Man
The Son of Man is a key figure in the Similitudes. Nickelsburg describes the Son of Man as a “transcendent heavenly figure [who] represents the most remarkable of all Jewish syntheses of speculation about the agents of divine activity” (Nickelsburg, Ancient Judaism and Christian Origins, 104). This Son of Man unites four tracks of Old Testament thought concerning the agent of God’s activity on earth:

  1. the Son of Man from Daniel;
  2. the Chosen One or Suffering Servant of Isaiah;
  3. the Messiah of the Davidic tradition; and
  4. personified or hypostasized Wisdom from Proverbs and Ben Sirach (Nickelsburg, Ancient Judaism and Christian Origins, 104; compare Reddish, Apocalyptic Literature, 163).

In the New Testament, these motifs—including the term “Son of Man”—are applied to Jesus. Early Christians very well could have readily associated the risen Christ with the Enochic “Son of Man” (Collins, Cosmology and Eschatology, 194). Collins asserts that the Son of Man passages in Matthew even appear dependent upon the Similitudes (Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination, 178).

The Figure of Enoch
The biblical Enoch is cryptic (Gen 5:19–24) as one “with God” and “taken” after a comparatively short lifetime. Enoch has been compared to Babylonian mythic heroes since, like these heroes, he is a primordial ancestor with a mysterious, yet clear, relationship with God (Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination, 46). Perhaps this, among other reasons, is what makes Enoch, as Collins put it, “well qualified to be the revealer of heavenly mysteries” as far as the early Apocalyptic writers were concerned (Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination, 47).

Related Articles
For further information on the pseudepigraphal writings, see this article: Pseudepigrapha, Old Testament. For information on the process of canonization, see this article: Canon, Old Testament.

Selected Resources for Further Study
Charlesworth, James. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha and the New Testament. Harrisburg, Pa.: Trinity International, 1998.
Collins, Adela Yarbro. Cosmology and Eschatology in Jewish and Christian Apocalypticism. Leiden: Brill: 1998.
Collins, John J. The Apocalyptic Imagination. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. 1998.
———. Apocalypticism in the Dead Sea Scrolls. London: Routledge, 1997.
———. “Jewish Apocalypses.” Semeia 14 (1979): 21–59.
Isaac, E. “1 (Ethiopic Apocalypse of) Enoch.” Pages 5–90 in The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha 1. 2 vols. Edited by James H. Charlesworth. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1983.
Milik, J.T., ed. The Books of Enoch: Aramaic Fragments of Qumran Cave 4. Oxford: Clarendon, 1976.
Nickelsburg, George W.E. 1 Enoch 1: A Commentary on the Book of 1 Enoch, Chapters 1–36; 81–108. Hermeneia. Edited by Klaus Baltzer. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2001.
———. Ancient Judaism and Christian Origins. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2003.
Reddish, Mitchell G., ed. Apocalyptic Literature: A Reader. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson. 1995.
VanderKam, James C. “1 Enoch, Enochic Motifs, and Enoch in Early Christian Literature.” Pages 33–101 in The Jewish Apocalyptic Heritage in Early Christianity. Compendia rerum iudaicarum ad Novum Testamentum 3/4. Edited by James C. VanderKam and William Adler. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1996.
VanderKam, James C., and Peter Flint. The Meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls: Their Significance for Understanding the Bible, Judaism, Jesus, and Christianity. Foreword by Emanuel Tov. San Francisco: HarperOne, 2002.

JONATHAN ALAN HIEHLE AND KELLY A. WHITCOMB

Hiehle, J. A., & Whitcomb, K. A. (2016). Enoch, First Book of. In J. D. Barry, D. Bomar, D. R. Brown, R. Klippenstein, D. Mangum, C. Sinclair Wolcott, … W. Widder (Hrsg.), The Lexham Bible Dictionary. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press.

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