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Words from GOD – Words to GOD

Chrysostom: The Orator, book 3 – via Archbishop Uwe AE.Rosenkranz

 

BOOK III

THE MESSAGE

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THE MESSAGE
ONE hundred years after the death of John of Constantinople the tardy world gave proof of its full and final appreciation of his power by calling him John Chrysostom, or John of the Golden Mouth, and thus will he be known to the end of time. By this title the peerless preacher was not only crowned but assigned his kingdom. He was not a statesman, nor a diplomat, nor a philosopher, nor a scholar. He was an orator, and as such his title is undisputed, and he reigns alone.
He was contemporary with mighty men. A glorious constellation of genius was that which blazed out during the years in which he was preaching at Constantinople. In the West were Ambrose, Jerome, Augustine, men of grip and of iron, mighty men of affairs,—Ambrose, who established the authority of the Church; Jerome, who fixed the language of the Church; and Augustine, who formulated the theology of the Church. In the East were the three great Cappadocians, Basil, Gregory Nazianzen, and Gregory of Nyssa, lofty-souled, cultured, magnetic, splendid with the ardor of devotion and fascinating with the poetry of asceticism. These were the men with whom John of Constantinople divided the attention of the world.
Just a moment to glance at their several claims to distinction. Ambrose of Milan was of the antique Roman type. He was built on the lines of a consul or a senator. He was a born statesman. When thirty-four years old he entered a council as a civil officer to allay the tumult. Two factions were struggling to elect a bishop. Ambrose addressed the multitude, and counseled moderation. So apt was the speech and so masterly the spirit of the speaker that the people cried out, “Ambrose for bishop! Ambrose for bishop!” The council was swept off its feet, and before the managers could recover control, the young Roman officer was elected and had reluctantly accepted the honor thrust upon him.
He never ceased to be a Roman officer; he merely exchanged the fasces for a miter. He was the impersonation of law and authority. Maximus rebelled against his master Gratian, and accepted the purple after Gratian had been assassinated. Ambrose refused to admit the usurper to communion, and was largely instrumental in keeping him out of Italy. In the Senate Hall in Rome stood an altar to Victory. On this all oaths were made. It had been removed. The pagan prefect of the city determined to restore it. It was replaced, but Ambrose protested, and in defiance of the prefect the altar was thrown into the street.
The Empress Justina was an Arian. She demanded a church in Milan for those of her own faith. She even sent soldiers to enforce her claim. They came into his church during a public service, and with one accord fell upon their knees. “We came to pray and not to fight,” they afterwards assured the stern bishop. The Emperor Theodosius ordered the wholesale slaughter of the Thessalonians. The bishop closed the doors of the church against the emperor, and forbade any priest to offer him the ministry of his office. For eight months the duel between the giants lasted; then the emperor threw himself prostrate upon the pavement before the altar and humbly pleaded for mercy. Such was Ambrose, “the spiritual ancestor of the Hildebrands and the Innocents,” the author of the papal creed that “the altar is above the throne.”
Jerome, master of the Latin, the Greek, and the Hebrew, sat himself down at Bethlehem and gave to the world the entire Bible in Latin. What Luther’s translation did for the German language, what the King James Version did for the English, this version by Jerome did for the language of the Latin Church. The Vulgate, as it is called, ranks with the Septuagint. The word of one man in Latin at Bethlehem is equivalent to the word of seventy men at Alexandria in Greek.
Augustine is the author of the only book of this period which is now popularly read. His “Confessions” are on the same shelf with the “Meditations of Marcus Aurelius” and the “Imitation” of à Kempis. His life-motto, “We are restless till we rest in Thee,” has been the song in the night of countless thousands in all ages of the world. His conversion is noted in the Roman Calendar and his doctrine of Predestination is only just losing its grip upon the religious world. He was the teacher of John Calvin and the inspiration of Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards.
In the Greek world was Basil the Great; his mother and grandmother saints of the Calendar; three of his brothers bishops; a mighty preacher himself, trained in the university centers. There also was Gregory Nazianzen, born of a mother “whose name is like a star in these ancient heavens of perished lights.” What wonderful women they were in these days, to be sure! Nonna, the mother of this Gregory; Emmelia, the mother of Basil and Gregory of Nyssa, daughter of a calendared saint and mother of three bishops; Monica, the mother of Augustine; and Anthusa, the mother of the Golden Mouth. The hand that rocks the cradle began early to rock the Christian world.

“Happy he
With such a mother! Faith in womankind
Beats with his blood, and trust in all things high
Comes easy to him; and though he trip and fall,
He shall not blind his soul with clay.”

Then Gregory of Nyssa, the beautiful-souled brother of Basil; full of sweetness and purity; seeing the glory of God in the grass of the valley, the lilies of the field, and the swing and song of the eternal sea; who lived all his life in the springtime of the soul.
These were the men who touched John of Constantinople shoulder to shoulder. It was the Elizabethan Age in Church history. The mighty tides of inspiration which had begun to ebb with the passing of the first teachers of Christianity were returning, and were once more at flood. The young faith which had conquered the world empire was now colonizing its new possessions, and was therefore developing leaders and builders and masters. It was an age which was to condition and leaven all coming ages, and the spirit of the times, the Zeitgeist, fired the blood and inspired the brain and made men kings. God was laying upon the shoulders of the Church the burden and the government of the yet unlived centuries, and chosen men were standing high up the mountain slopes and reaching up still higher to take the onus directly from his hands. So there were giants in those days.
When, therefore, the Church by common consent gave to John of Constantinople the supreme place as a pulpit orator, it was a magnificent tribute. It meant that he was primus inter pares. He was unrivaled among rivals. Athanasius, just passing off the stage of action, was a mighty “athlete of the truth;” so mighty that Julian condemned him alone of all the Christians to die, as there was no safety for paganism while he could speak. Gregory Nazianzen preached himself up from a little, obscure, helpless Church in Constantinople to the pulpit of St. Sophia, where scholars and statesmen and poets and philosophers sat spellbound by his eloquence. But there was only one Golden Mouth. His was not the greatness of the mountain that rises from the plain unrivaled and alone, but the glory of the lofty peak that stands in the midst of the towering range and that dominates all its colossal neighbors.
We have accepted as a truism the verdict of the poet:

“Beneath the rule of men entirely great,
The pen is mightier than the sword.”

This has become a part of our copy-book repertoire. Let us be ready to admit as an equal truth that the tongue is mightier than the pen. Oratory is the king among arts. Painting, music, poetry please and thrill and inspire, but oratory is master, and gives orders and makes laws. Written thought is an iceberg adrift upon the sea. It is massive and resistless, and may crush whatever it touches. Spoken thought is the storm that sweeps from continent to continent; it is projectile, it is in full cry, it is on the trail, it will drag down the quarry.
Philip said of Demosthenes, “Had I been in his audience, I should have taken up arms against myself.” Warren Hastings said that in the midst of Burke’s address in Westminster Hall, in which he described the cruelties inflicted upon the natives of India, and during which the whole audience shuddered and many women swooned, “For one-half hour I actually felt myself to be the most culpable man on earth.” Brutus waving in the Forum the bloody knife by which Lucretia slew herself, and telling over the story of her death, closed the gates of the city against Tarquin and overturned the tyrant’s throne. Mirabeau, crippled, pitted with smallpox, misshapen, called because of his personal appearance “the nephew of Satan,” held the National Assembly in its place in spite of the threats of Louis. Said he to Brézé, the representative of the king, “Go tell your royal master that we are here by order of the people, and can be driven out only by bayonets.” His voice guided the whirlwind, and had he lived he might have saved France from the Reign of Terror. Sheridan closed his speech at the trial of Warren Hastings, and immediately the House of Commons adjourned, on the ground that the members were too excited to judge the case honestly and to vote fairly. The audience of Jonathan Edwards felt itself sliding into perdition. Brutus turned the hearts of the people away from Cæsar while the dead body of Caesar was before them. Marc Antony brought them back with tears for the “poor, bleeding piece of earth,” and with brands of fire for the “traitors’ houses.” Under the control of men entirely great, the tongue is mightier than the pen.
It would be vain to attempt an analysis of the remarkable power of Chrysostom. Perhaps it is vain to attempt analysis in any case. There is that about what we call eloquence which laughs at the critic and defies the scalpel. Emerson defines the art as “the appropriate organ of the mightiest personal energy.” We already know that, or something like that. Such a definition does not define. According to Canon Farrar, “Eloquence is the noble, the harmonious, the passionate expression of truths profoundly realized, or of emotions intensely felt.” Daniel Webster claims that “true eloquence does not consist in speech. It must exist in the man, the subject, the occasion. It comes, if it come at all, like the outbreaking of a fountain from the earth, or the bursting forth of volcanic fires, with spontaneous, original, native force.” None of these definitions gives us the entire secret. They describe the conditions, the media, the soil from which or the laws by which it grows, not the flower itself; the volcanic fires, if you please, bursting from the womb of the world, but not the ingredients of the seething outrush.
Dr. James M. Buckley, in his great work on Extemporaneous Oratory summarizes the elements of oratory: “The voice susceptible of modulation in tone, pitch, and rhythm; the figure, attitude, and action, together with light and shade which are the elements of music, sculpture, and painting, are involved in oratory. For ordinary effects it may, and for higher effects it must, appeal to the intellect, the sensibilities, and the deeper emotions; and as it appeals to these it must employ them; its ultimate object being to influence the will by convincing the judgment, arousing the conscience, or moving the heart.” This calm judicial statement, taken all in all, is perhaps the most comprehensive and the most satisfying. To be sure it is done in cold blood. It is a snapshot at a sunbeam; but the lines in the film are well marked and the perspective is good. The agencies of oratory and the object of oratory are indicated; and when these agencies are operative and this object is attained, behold we have eloquence. As Wendell Phillips said, “I earnestly try to get the audience to think as I do.”
Judged by this standard, John Chrysostom was past-master of the art. How he did it no one knows; that he did it, the volatile rabble of Antioch and the inflammable mobs of Constantinople, held as by a magician’s spell, will testify.
His power as a preacher was not aided by his personal appearance. Many of the great orators have been great men physically. Dr. Chalmers possessed a ponderous frame. Daniel Webster was called by Sydney Smith, “a steam engine in breeches.” Fox, Burke, John Bright were stalwarts. And yet there are notable exceptions. Wilberforce was a pygmy. Boswell says he looked like a shrimp and talked like a whale. Summer-field was a lifelong invalid. St. Paul, Athanasius, John Wesley were less than the average. So with John of Constantinople. He was short of stature, his frame slight, his cheeks hollow, his head bald. But his forehead was a great dome and his eyes like burning torches. No one thought of his personal appearance when he began to speak, even as we never consider the tiny lake in the wilds of the North where the river takes its rise, when we watch the sweep of the lordly Mississippi. It was the overwhelming rush of the whirlwind, and no one has time to remember the cloud no bigger than a man’s hand which came out of the horizon. It was power incarnate, and the listeners cared little for the magazine in which the power was stored.
A discriminating authority thus describes his style: “A power of exposition which unfolded in lucid order, passage by passage, the meaning of the book in hand; a rapid transition from clear exposition or keen logical argument to fervid exhortation, or pathetic appeal, or indignant denunciation; the versatile ease with which he could lay hold of any little incident of the moment, such as the lighting of the lamps in church, and use it to illustrate his discourse; the mixture of plain common-sense, simple boldness, and tender affection with which he would strike home to the hearts and consciences of his hearers,—all these are not only general characteristics of the man, but are usually to be found manifested more or less in the compass of each discourse. It is this rare union of powers which constitutes his superiority to almost all the other Christian preachers with whom he might be, or has been, compared. Savonarola had all, and more than all his fire and vehemence, but untempered by his sober, calm, good sense, and wanting his rational method of interpretation. Chrysostom was eager and impetuous at times in speech as well as in action; but he was never fanatical. Jeremy Taylor combines, like Chrysostom, real earnestness of purpose with rhetorical forms of expression and florid imagery; but his style is far more artificial, and is overlaid with a multifarious learning from which Chrysostom was entirely free. Wesley is almost his match in simple, straightforward, practical exhortation, but does not rise into flights of eloquence like his.”
He was a man of one Book. His Bible was never closed. His Homilies are expositions. His sermons sparkled with jewels from this mine. In his “Homilies on the Statues” may be counted no less than four hundred quotations from the Holy Scriptures, covering forty-five of the sixty-six books of the authorized Canon, and three books of the Apocrypha. His eyes were open as well to the pages of nature. He refers to the birds which fly high to avoid the net; the deer which avoids the snare in which it has once been entangled; the spider which spreads out the fine texture of its web in the sunshine; the pebble sinking gently into the depths of the sea; the “interchanging dances of the seasons;” the meadow of the earth festooned with flowers; the meadow of the sky spangled with stars, “the rose below, the rainbow above.”
He draws from his splendid store of classical knowledge. He compares the crowd of hearers to the sea broken with waves, and to a field of corn across which the west wind blows, and it is pretty certain that he has in mind the familiar figures of Homer.

“So roll the billows to the Icarian shore,
From east and south when winds begin to roar;
Burst their dark mansions in the clouds and sweep
The whitening surges of the ruffled deep;
And as on corn when western gusts descend,
Before the blasts the lofty harvests bend.”

He speaks of the “smoothness of Isocrates, the weight of Demosthenes, the dignity of Thucydides, the sublimity of Plato,” as if he were noting passing acquaintances. He quotes from the “Apology,” points out the weak points in the “Republic,” and borrows his figures from the “Phædrus.”
He was not a theologian nor a founder of a school of theology. Metaphysics and mysticism were the very atmosphere of an Eastern thinker. The subtlest and most abstract subject, the finest hair-splitting, the being of God, the entity of the human spirit, the limitations of space,—this was the field and the delight of the Oriental. But Chrysostom avoids this. His sermons are practical. He preaches on live subjects,—sin, repentance, faith, the redemptive work of Christ. He believed in a hereditary tendency to sin, but not that sin is a part of man’s nature. He preached the absolute freedom of the will, for this was the tonic needed in that age of supposed demoniac possession and fatalism. He meets the speculation of Arius, not by counter speculation, but by reference to Holy Scripture; disclaiming all power to understand the inscrutable nature of the Godhead. He does not depend upon good works, neither does he repudiate them with the popular school of his day. In fact, he was a preacher, and his business was to awaken the conscience, not to answer questions; to bring about results, not to formulate a system. Hence he moved the people; his views were never discussed by a General Council; his preaching never awakened theological controversy.
He accepted the whole Bible, and drew his material from the full treasury. It is said that he was the first to apply the term τά βιβλία, The Bible, to the collection of sacred writings. He even quotes from Esther, Tobit, Judith, Wisdom, and Ecclesiasticus without any suggestion of hesitation or suspicion. This need cause no surprise, as the Canon of Scripture by which these books are excluded is not as old as Chrysostom. He was not a Hebrew scholar, yet so sound was his judgment and so acute his sympathy with human conditions that he avoids many of the errors of his contemporaries, and reaches by the intuitions of his heart what other men have reached by a knowledge of interpretation and exegesis.
A few extracts from his sermons follow, in addition to those already given, in order that the style of the great preacher may be further illustrated. We claim no special worth in these selections. The richness and abundance of material makes any choice difficult and confusing. So productive was Chrysostom that, according to an old writer, only God can know all his literary works. There are, to begin with, two hundred and forty-two letters. The greater number of these were written during the days of his exile. Here we may study the man. They are private epistles to special friends, but the world can read every line with safety and satisfaction. There is no retreat, no concession, no surrender. He tells of the evils that have come, but he does not complain. He describes the persecutions and the heart-breakings, but there is no bitterness for the persecutor and no weak pity for himself. His treatises are important. Some of them have been mentioned and quoted. Others are his work on Virginity, the Instructions of Catechumens, and the treatise to prove that no one can harm the man who does not harm himself.
Then come his sermons, six hundred of which are expository. His practice was to take the Scriptures, book by book, and so we have in these Homilies a mine of exposition, of interpretation, of brilliant periods, and of practical common sense. He aims at real targets and seeks for immediate results. The Homily, prepared evidently with great care, was usually followed by an extemporaneous address. Indeed he breaks out at times into sudden bursts of impromptu eloquence in the midst of an exposition. His interpretation is according to the school of Antioch. This school was a protest against the allegorizing tendency of Origen. With his fervid imagination and poetic temperament we might have expected him to be a disciple of Origen. But he was too serious and too much in earnest. Hence his exegesis was guarded against mystical speculation and allegory, and his pulpit discourses were free from doctrinal abstraction and empty rhetoric. His methods of interpretation and his splendid oratory were alike held as mere instruments to awaken his hearers and to secure the largest spiritual growth.

EXTRACTS
“O my Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me.”—Matt. 26:39.

“The doctrine of the incarnation was very hard to receive. For consider what a great thing it was to hear and to learn that God, the ineffable, the incorruptible, the unintelligible, the invisible, the incomprehensible, in whose hands are the ends of the earth, who looketh upon the earth and causeth it to tremble, who toucheth the mountains and maketh them smoke, the weight of whose condescension not even the cherubim were able to bear, but veiled their faces by the shelter of their wings; that this God, who surpasses all understandings and baffles all calculation, having passed by all angels, archangels, and all the spiritual powers above, deigned to become man and to take flesh formed of earth and clay, and suffer all things to which man is liable.”

From sermon preached after Eutropius had left the sanctuary of the Church and had been captured.
“Delectable indeed are the meadow and the garden, but far more delectable the study of the divine writings. For there indeed are flowers which fade, but here are thoughts which abide in full bloom; there is the breeze of the zephyr, but here is the breath of the Spirit; there is the hedge of thorns, but here is the guarding providence of God; there is the song of the cicadæ, but here is the melody of the prophets; there is the pleasure which comes from sight, but here is the profit which comes from study. The garden is confined to one place, but the Scriptures are in all parts of the world; the garden is subject to the necessities of the seasons, but the Scriptures are rich in foliage and laden with fruit alike in winter and summer. Let us, then, give diligent heed to the study of the Scriptures; for if thou doest this, the Scriptures will expel thy despondency and engender pleasure, and in the tumult of life it will save thee from suffering like those who are tossed by troubled waves. The sea rages, but thou sailest on with calm weather; for thou hast the Scripture for thy pilot. A few days ago the Church was besieged; an army came and fire issued from their eyes; yet it did not scorch the olive-tree; swords were unsheathed, yet no one received a wound; the imperial gates were in distress, but the Church was in security.”
Chrysostom is not always satisfied with the interest shown in his sermons. The problem of reaching the masses is not a new one. As far back as in the fourth century the question was being asked why people do not come to the Church. The summer service was an early trial to the preacher’s nerves. Hear him in one of his great discourses:

“How am I distressed when I call to mind that in festival days the multitude assembled are like the broad expanse of the sea, but now not even the smallest part of that multitude is gathered together here. Where are those who oppress us with their presence on feast-days? I look for them, and am grieved on their account, when I mark what a multitude are perishing of those who are in the state of salvation. How few are reached by the things which concern salvation, and how large a part of the body of Christ is like a dead and motionless carcass!
“They perhaps make the summer season their excuse. I hear them saying, ‘The heat is excessive; the scorching sun is intolerable; we can not bear to be crushed in the crowd and to be oppressed by the heat and confined space.’ I am ashamed of them; such excuses are womanish. When the dew of the divine oracles is so abundant, dost thou make heat thy excuse? ‘The water which I shall give him shall be in him a well of water springing up unto everlasting life.’ These are the words of Christ. When thou hast spiritual wells and rivers, art thou afraid of material heat? Now in the market-place where there is so much turmoil and crowding and scorching wind, how is it that you do not make suffocation and heat an excuse for absenting yourself? Here indeed, owing to the pavement floor and to the construction of the building, the air is lighter and cooler. Whence it is plain that these silly excuses are the offspring of indolence and of a supine disposition, destitute of the grace of the Holy Spirit.”

In his Homily on the verses, “And ye shall hear of wars and rumors of wars, … but he that shall endure unto the end shall be saved:”

“One may marvel at Christ’s power and the courage of the disciples. It was as if any one were to command men ignorant of seamanship, who had not so much indeed as seen the sea, to guide and fight the ship when an innumerable fleet was coming against them; and the sea was stirred up on every side, and darkness was filling the air, when the sailors were at strife above and monsters were rising from below, and thunderbolts falling,—then with this single bark, filled with a disturbed crew, to subdue and to sink the fleet. For indeed by the heathens the disciples were hated as Jews, and by the Jews were stoned as waging war against their laws. The Jewish race were exceedingly detestable to the government of the Romans, as having occasioned them endless troubles; but this did not disturb the preaching of the Word. The city of Jerusalem was stormed and destroyed and its inhabitants crushed and overwhelmed, but the disciples who came out from that city conquered even the Romans. A strange and wonderful fact! Countless thousands of the Jews did the Romans subdue, but they could not prevail against twelve men, naked and unarmed.”

Such then is our John of Constantinople, a messenger to the people, a great-hearted, whole-souled student of the Book and lover of his kind; who seemed to know by intuition what his people needed and how to distinguish the false from the true.
And so he takes his place with the mighty JOHNS who have come to us out of the past,—John the Baptist, John the Beloved, John Huss, John Knox, John Wesley,—makers of epochs, seers of the vision splendid, dwelling in the light that never was on sea or land, whose coming has meant a stir among the dead things, whose life has made life lovely, and whose message, like golden chains, has helped to bind the whole round world about the feet of God.

INDEX
Acacius, 118, 120
Adelphius, 147
Alaric, 19, 21, 136
Alexandria, 52, 104
Ambrose, 76, 159
Anthemis, Letter to, 148
Anthony, St, 45
Anthusa, 32, 47
Antioch, City of, 29
Council of, 117
Insurrection of, 65
Intellectuality of, 31
School of, 174
Antoninus, 103
Apocrypha, 173
Arcadius, Ratifies Council III, Death of, 154
Arians, 41, 92, 99
Arsacius, 127
Asterius, 80
Athanasius, 25, 118, 164
Athens, 18, 135
Augusteum, 83
Augustine, 52, 162

Bacchus, Society of, 24
Balkan Peninsula, 21
Baptism of Chrysostom, 42
Barbarians, 17, 44
Basil, 40, 46, 157, 162
Basiliscus, 151
Baths of Constantine, 120
Belisarius, 87
Berytus, Law School of, 37
Bethlehem, 161
Bible and Chrysostom, 171
Bishop, Election of, 52
Bithynia, 141
“Blues” and “Greens”, 84
Bosworth Field, 154
Brahminism, 43
Bright, John, 169
Brutus, 166
Buckley, James M, 167
Burke, Edmund, 165
Burns, Robert, 106
Byzantium, 11

Cæsarea, 142
Cæsarius, 73
Calvin, John, 162
Canon, The Twelfth, 117
Capital of Empire, 12
Cappadocia, 141
Castricia, 102
Catechumen, 119
Charles IX, Remorse of, 154
Chalcedon, 10
Chalcedon, Synod of, 134
Chalmers, Dr, 169
Charges Against Chrysostom, 110
Chosroes, 13
Chrysostom, John, Birth and Parentage, 29
At School with Libanius, 34
Study of Law, 36
Under Influence of Meletius, 40
Abandons Law, 42
Becomes Catechumen, 42
Appointed Reader, 42
Organizes Monastery in Home, 48
Rescues Theodore from Matrimony, 49
Views of Marriage, 50
Deceives Basil, 52
Work on Priesthood, 54
Retires to Desert, 55
Returns to Antioch, 60
Ordained, 61
First Sermon, 62
Homilies on the Statues, 69
Bishop of Constantinople, 81
Attacks Social Customs, 88
Reorganizes Finance, 91
Defends Eutropius, 94
Baffles Gainas, 99
Collision with Eudoxia, 101
Espouses Cause of Nitrian Monks, 108
Attacked by Theophilus. 109
First Trial, 110
Deposed, 111
Banished, 113
Recalled, 115
Again Attacks Eudoxia, 116
Second Trial, 117
Final Banishment, 121
Writes Innocent I, 129
Writes Olympias, 139
Journey to Cucusus, 141
Mobbed at Cæsarea, 143
Reaches Cucusus, 147
Joined by Friends, 147
Ordered to Pityus, 150
Death at Comana, 152
Body Brought to Constantinople, 155
Personal Appearance, 169
Analysis of Power, 169
Extracts from Sermons, 176
Church, Admission to, 44
Church, Power of, 74
Cicero, 124
Cleanthes, 104
Clement, 104
Clergy, Attack Upon, 90
Comana, 151
Commissioners, The Imperial, 71
Constantine, 9, 11
Constantinople, Strategic Importance of, 9
Topography of., 82
Social Condition of, 85
People of, 87
Council Against Chrysostom, 117
Cucusus, 138

Dacia, 18
Dante, 124
Daphne, Grove of, 30
Deception of Chrysostom, 53
Decius, Death of, 18
Demetrius, Letter to, 57
Demosthenes, 165
De Stael, Madame, 150
Diana, Temple of, 18
Dioscorus, 147
Diptyche, 155
Disraeli, 63

Earthquake in Antioch, 32
in Constantinople, 114
Easter, 119
Ecclesiasticism Growing, 44
Edwards, Jonathan, 166
Egypt, 58
Elizabethan Age in Church History, 163
Emerson Ralph Waldo, 167
Emmelia, 163
Engraphin, 102
Ephesus, 103
Epiphanius, 107
Essenes, 43
Ethelbert, Baptism of, 44
Eudoxia, Conflict with, 101
Repentant, 114
Death of, 137
Eugenius, 77
Euripides, 104
Eutropius Chamberlain, 79
Character of, 93
Downfall of, 95
Eutropius Reader, 128
Evening Services, 92
Evethius, 146

Faerie Queene, 101
Farrar, Dean, 167
Flavian, Bishop, 66, 69, 74
Frigidus, Battle of, 77

Gainas, the Goth, 87, 99
Galatia, 141
Gautama, 43
Gemellus, Letter to, 148
Gibbon, 16, 86
Goths, Invasion of the, 18
Gratian, Death of, 160
Gregory Nazianzen, 159
Gregory of Nyssa, 159, 163
Gregory VII, 135

Heraclius, 13
Hermione, 51
Hermits, 55, 73
Herodias, 117
Hicron, Port of, 114
Hippodrome, 83
Homer, 171
Honorius, 78, 135
Huns, 19, 136

Ignatius, St., 54
Image of Eudoxia, 116
Innocent I, 129, 131, 153
Innocent III, 135
Isaurians, 136
Isis, Worship of, 25
Islam, 13
Isocrates, 172

Jerome, 107, 161
Jezdegerd, 154
John, Gospel of, 75
John, King, 135
Julian, 12, 26, 164
Jupiter, Statue of, 126
Justina, Empress, 161
Justinian, Reform of, 37

Law, Practice of, 36
Tricks of, 38
Lecky, 85
Leo, the Isaurian, 14
Leontius, 142
Libanus, 34
Licinius, 11
Logos, 106
Loyola, Ignatius, 53
Luther, 49, 162
Lysippus, Horses of, 83

Macedonius, 73
Marcia, 102
Marianus, 136
Martel, Charles, 16
Martin, St., 52
Matrimony, 49
Matthew, Gospel of., 75
Maximus, 49, 162
Megarians, 10
Meletius, 40
Mirabeau, 166
Moesia, 18
Monasticism, 43
Monica, 163
Monks, Attack of, 143
Morals, State of, 85
Moslemeh, 14

Nature, Beauties of, 171
Nectarius, Death of, 78
Nice, Council of, 130
Chrysostom at, 138
Nilus, Message of, 137
Nitria, Monks of, 108
Nonna, 163

Oaths, 39
Olympias, Deaconess, 122
Persecution of, 128
Letters to, 139
Oratory, Analysis of, 167
King of Arts, 165
Origen, 105

Paganism, 11
Paradise Lost, 106
Paris, 83
Paul, Letters of, 76
Peter, 53
Paul of Croatia, 119
Paulus, Murdered, 138
Pentadia, 122, 129
Persia, 12
Pharetrius, 142
Phillips, Wendell, 168
Phœnician Missions, 141, 148
Pityus, 150
Plato, 105
Pliny, 29
Pope, Alexander, 62
Porphyry, 149
Preaching, Direct, 88
in Early Church, 61
Priest, Qualifications of., 54, 59
Priesthood, On the, 47
Procla, 122
Psalms, 75

Restorationism, 106
Rites, Christian, 45
Rome, Loss of Prestige, 23
Rome, See of, 129
Rufinus, 145

Sabiniana, 147
San Marco, 84
Sanctuary, Right of, 94
Sapor II, 22
Saracens, 16
Sardica, Council of, 118
Savonarola, 170
Schlegel, 16
Scripture, Sense of, 106
Sebastia, 138
Secundus, 32
Severian, 103
Seleucia, 145
Seleucus, Nicator, 29
Senate House, Burned, 125
Sermons, 62, 75, 174
Shahrbarg, 13
Sheridan, 166
Shoestrings, Silk, 89
Soliman, 15
St. Sophia, 84, 125
Sozomen, 34
Statues of Emperor, 65
“Statues, Homilies on the”, 69
Stelechius, Letter to, 57
Stilicho, 87
Stylites, St. Simon, 30

Tarquin, 166
Taylor, Jeremiah, 170
Tax, Special, 65
Teuton, Tribes, 21
Theodore, 49
Theodosius, 64
Theodosius II, 156
Theology in the East, 172
Theophilus of Alexandria, 79
Summoned to Constantinople, 108
Leave Constantinople, 115
Death of, 154
Theophilus of Constantinople, 148
Thessalonica, 76, 135
Thrace, 136
Thracian Troop, The, 122
Thucydides, 172
Tribigald, 94

Ukraine, 18
Ulden, 101

Valens, Decree of, 57
Death of, 20
Venice, 83
Victory, Altar of, 161
Virginity, Work on, 174
Visigoths, Plea of, 19

Webster, Daniel, 167
Wesley, John, 49, 169, 171
Whitefield, 162
Widows, 31
Wilberforce, 169
Winter, The Taurian, 149
Wolsey, Cardinal, 124
Women of the Early Church, 163

Zeuxippus, Baths of, 82
Willey, J. H. (1906). Chrysostom: The Orator (S. 153–181). Cincinnati; New York: Jennings and Graham; Eaton and Mains.

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