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Words from GOD – Words to GOD

Ephesians, commentary 7- appendix, indices, via Uwe Rosenkranz

INDEX OF ANCIENT SOURCES
OLD TESTAMENT

Genesis
1:25 153n9
1:26 153
2:23 184
2:24 25, 25n26, 26, 191–92
4:5–7 156–57
6:1–6 138n15
8:21 161
11:5 105
12:1–3 39, 109
12:1–14 88
12:3 41, 117
13:14–17 88
15:2 42
15:18–21 88
17:21 88
26:2–5 88
28:13–15 88
29:14–30 42
38:17–20 37

Exodus
2:5–10 42
4:21 148n3
12:3 117
12:13–17 193n16
15:6 60
15:26 193n16
16:10 57
19:6 31, 33, 39, 97
20:4–6 193, 193n16
20:12 184, 193
20:17 165
23:22 33
24:16–17 57
29:18 161
33:17–23 57
34:6 130
40:34–38 57

Leviticus
11:44 39
11:44–45 33, 97
11:45 33
15 149
19:2 33, 39, 97
19:15 185
20:7 33
20:26 33, 39, 97
26:1 86
26:30 86

Numbers
12:3 130
13:20 202
14:18 130
15:39 70
22:24 84
24:11 57
26:55–56 37, 49
32:7 70
32:28 117

Deuteronomy
4:20 49, 58–59
5:16 184
6:4 134
7:6 39, 97
7:6–8 33, 39, 189
9:26 49, 59
9:29 49, 59
10:17 185
14:2 33, 97
14:21 33, 97
25:5–10 42
26:19 97
28:1 60
28:49 89n12
29:22 89n12
30:6 86
32:8 61
32:9 49
32:15 43
33:2–3 73
33:5 43
33:26 43

Joshua
5:1 70

Judges
5:19 149
13:12 79

1 Samuel
8 133
8:8 79
14:41 36, 49
17:34 141

2 Samuel
7 88
21:3 59

1 Kings
8:11 57
8:15 35
8:41 89n12
8:51 59
8:53 59
8:54 118
8:56 35
19:18 119

2 Kings
21:14 59

1 Chronicles
22:8–10 99n34
23:11 117
29:3 79
29:20 118

Job
1:6–12 38
5:9 105
6:11 131
6:26 131
9:10 105
11:5–9 121
15:15 59
28:28 45
34:24 105

Psalms 25
8:6 62
12:1 105
12:8 105
15:2 33
22:27 117
23:1 141
24:7–10 57
28:9 59
29:3 57
33:12 59
34:9 33
45:2 105
50:18–20 166
50:23 166
53:2 105
62:3 84
64:9 79
66:20 35
67 39
68 137n14, 137–38, 139n17
68:9 59
68:18 25, 136–39, 137n13
68:35 35
74:3 33
78:62 59
78:71 59
80:12 84
86:15 130
89:5 59
89:7 59
89:13 60
94:14 59
95 49
95:8 148n3
100 49
103 39
103:8 130
106:5 59
106:40 59
110:1 60, 62
111:10 45
113 39
118:22 98
119:36 149
119:155 89n12
145–50 49
145:8 130
147:4 119
148:14 89

Proverbs
1:2–7 45
20:7 70
23:29–35 177
24:31 84

Ecclesiastes
2:4 79
6:10 119
8:9 79
8:14 79
8:17 79

Isaiah 25
2:1–4 39, 90, 95, 109, 112
2:18 86
5:26 89n12
6:3 57
6:10 148n3
8:14 98
9:6 90
11:2 56
11:5 205–6
19:25 59
26:19 172
28:12 80
28:16 98
29:16 79
33:6 45
40:12–31 203
40:26 119
41:10 60
42:8 57
44:2 43
45:23 119
47:6 59
49:6–7 109
49:24–25 137
52:7 96, 206
53:7–8 141
57:15 59
57:19 96, 96n26
58:6 132
58:9 132
59 203n6
59:17 206–7
60:1 172
60:1–7 112
63:10 158, 158n6
63:17 59

Jeremiah
2:3 97
4:4 86
5:15 89n12
9:24 79
10:16 59
19:15 148n3
20:9 163
22:17 149
23:2 141
31:3 73
51:19 59

Ezekiel
1:28 57
16 189–90
16:6–14 189–90
16:59–63 190
20:41 161
22:27 149
22:30 70
34:11 141
35:12 159
36:22–24 165n1
37 100, 112
37:15–23 100
37:24–28 100
37:26–28 97
38:20–22 132
43:2 57
44:4 57
44:7 86
44:9 86

Daniel
1:4 105
1:17 105
2:8 175
2:20–23 53
2:21 46n14
3:29 159
4:37 46n14
5:4 86
6:11 118
7:1–14 38
7:24 60
8:13 59
9:13 105
9:23 105
10:1 105
10:10–21 60–61
10:11 105
11:14 70

Joel
2:28–29 50

Amos
4:2 59
5:18–20 205
6:3 205
9:11 47n16
9:11–12 39

Habakkuk
2:9 149

Haggai
2:9 51

Zechariah
8:15–16 156n2
8:16 155–56

Malachi
3:17 51
NEW TESTAMENT

Matthew
2:18 128
5:22 184
5:25 48
5:28 184
5:32 184
5:34 184
5:39 184
5:44 184
6:13 123
7:17 155
8:5 128
10:19–20 209
11:29 130
12:28 56n4
12:32 77
12:33 155
16:17 204n7
17:17 131
18:15–20 170
19:4 80
19:5 184
21:33 84
22:34–40 193
22:44 60
23:15 69
25 48
25:6 159

Mark
1:8 56n4
1:11 43
3:28 105
3:29–30 48
7:22 149
9:7 43
10:7–8 184
10:30 77
11:25 119
12:28–31 193
13:11 209
13:19 80
13:33 209
14:38 209
14:58 86

Luke
1:15 56n4
1:28 43–44
1:35 56n4
1:41 56n4
1:42 159
1:67 56n4
1:68–76 35
1:68–79 39
2:47 105
6:43 155
10:37 72
12:10 48
12:11 209
16:8 69
18:1 106
18:11 119
18:13 119
18:30 77
20:17–18 99n30
21:36 209
22:41 119n3
24:36–38 183
24:49 50

John
3:16 73
3:30 130n5
8:31–47 72
8:56 108
10:11–18 141
12:32 48
12:48 48
13:34–35 55n2
14:6 151
14:16–17 50
15 202
15:26 50
16:8 171

Acts 2, 8, 15
2:13 177
2:17–21 50
3:25 117
4:36 69
5 157
6 157
7:2 57
7:48 86
7:51 158
8 141
8:16 134
8:26–40 141
9:40 119n3
15:15–17 39
15:16 47n16
17:24 86
18–20 6
18:18–21 6
18:24–28 6
19 9, 15, 61, 83n1
19:1–7 7–8
19:5 134
19:8–10 7
19:11–20 7
19:23–41 7–8
20 7–8, 106
20:4 212
20:17–35 8
20:19 130
20:21 7
20:25–26 7
20:28 141
20:28–31 7
20:36 119n3
21:5 119n3
21:8 141

Romans 12n12, 27, 29, 32, 78n22, 83, 88n9, 92–93, 101, 116n1
1 147, 149
1:1 106
1:4 56n4, 60
1:7 33, 212
1:8–10 55
1:10 118n2
1:18–32 70–71
1:21 147
1:24 149
1:25 80, 123
1:26 71
1:28 39n6
1:29 149
2–3 70n9
2:8 159
2:11 185
2:14 71
2:24 132
2:25–29 86
3:3 91
3:9 48
3:24 43–44
3:27 79
3:30 78n22
3:31 91, 92n21
3:31–4:25 92
4:3 128
4:6 128
4:14 91
4:17 73
5–6 43, 75
5:1–2 96n27, 113
5:5 175–76
5:9–10 74
5:11 79
5:12–19 94
5:12–21 48, 68, 72
5:19–20 177n4
6:1–11 68, 134, 169, 189
6:4 68
6:11 34n7
6:17 141
6:19 149
7 68n1
7:2 91
7:6 91–92
7:7–14 94
7:12 93
7:14–25 71
7:22 120n6
8:4 69n5, 185
8:9–10 120n7
8:11 73
8:15 135
8:23 44
8:26–27 177–78
8:34 60
8:38 60
8:38–39 121–22
9–11 97
9:4 87n5
9:5 123
9:14–15 128
9:17 128
9:23 80n25
9:32–33 98
10:2 94
10:4 93
10:9 74, 134
10:11 128
10:13 74
11:4 119
11:13 142
11:21 71
11:24 71
11:25 46
11:30–32 72, 72n14
11:33 105
11:33–36 121
11:36 123
12 126
12:1 126
12:2 85, 152, 170
12:3 130n5, 136
12:5 34n7
12:12 118n2
13 61
13:7 183
13:9 47
13:11 74
13:11–13 78
13:13 149n4
14:11 119
14:19 99n33
15:2 99n33
15:6 135
15:24 194n18
15:30 118n2, 126n2
15:33 123
16:17 126n2
16:25 46
16:27 123

1 Corinthians 12n12, 26, 29, 32, 203
1–4 75
1:2 33, 34n7
1:3 31, 212
1:6 39n6
1:9 66
1:10 126n2
1:18 74
1:21–25 45
1:29–31 79
1:30 34n7
2:1 46
2:6–7 45
2:7 46
2:8 57
2:11–12 56
3 99
3:3 68
3:10–11 98
3:19 45
4 130
4:1 46
4:12 131
4:15 192
4:16 126n2
4:17 141
4:21 130
5 165
5:5 74
5:7 39n6
5:10–11 19, 149
6 26
6:9–10 19
6:12–20 167n4
6:14 60
6:15 26
6:15–19 26
6:16 25
6:17 25
6:19 26
7 194n18, 197
7:5 118n2
7:16 183
7:21 195
7:22 106
7:31 78
7:39 172
8:6 134
10:11 46n14
10:12 200n2
10:20 61
11 134n11
11:4–5 118n2
11:13 118n2
11:14 71
11:30 172
11:32 48, 185
12 126, 140, 140n19, 143
12:3 134
12:12 134
12:12–31 197
12:28 141
13:2 46
13:4 130
13:12 58, 120
14:1–33 178
14:3 99n33
14:5 99n33
14:12 99n33
14:13–14 118n2
14:24–25 171
14:26 99n33
15 68, 110
15:1 200n2
15:6 172
15:9 110
15:18 172
15:20 172
15:20–28 23
15:22 34n7, 73
15:24–25 60
15:24–28 59, 62
15:31 79
15:36 73
15:40–49 37n2
15:45 73
15:50 204n7
15:51 46, 172
16:13 200n2
16:15 142
16:16 126n2

2 Corinthians 12n12, 29, 32, 78n22, 108n8
1:1 33
1:2 31, 212
1:3 135
1:3–4 35
1:4 128
1:12 70
1:15 105
1:22 50
2:7 160n9
2:8 126n2
2:10 160n9
2:15 74
3:4 105
3:6 142
3:7–14 91
3:8–9 142
3:12–18 27
4:1 106, 142
4:16 106, 120
5 24, 38
5:1 37n2
5:2 118n2
5:4–5 38
5:5 50
5:12 120
5:16–17 38
5:17 34n7, 80
5:18 142
5:19 48
5:20 209
6:1 126n2
6:3 142
6:11–12 192
6:16 128
7:15 196
8:4 118n2
8:22 105
9:5 128
10–12 106, 108, 114
10:1 126n2
10:2 69n5, 105, 118n2
10:5 151
10:8 99n33
10:17 79
11:1 131
11:1–6 190n11
11:4 131
11:19–20 131
11:31 135
12:13 160n9
12:14 192
12:19 99n33, 149n4
12:21 165
13:10 99n33
13:11 201

Galatians 12n12, 15, 20, 21, 29, 32, 78n22, 83, 88n9, 92–93, 101, 108, 108n8, 116n1
1 107
1–2 108, 115
1:3 31, 212
1:11 107
1:11–24 109
1:15–22 108n6
1:16 204n7
1:17 192
1:22 34n7
2 75
2:6–14 192
2:9 109
2:10 128
2:15 71
2:16 78n22, 79
2:20 148
3:6–18 39
3:8 27
3:17 91
3:19–29 27
3:22 94
3:27 24, 38n4
3:27–28 134, 180
3:27–29 192, 197
3:28 34n7
4:4 46, 78
4:4–5 42
4:6 135
4:8 71
4:12 118n2
4:29 185
5–6 24n24
5:6 34n7
5:16 68, 70n10
5:16–24 70
5:17 204n7
5:19 149n4, 165
5:22 130
5:22–23 169–70
5:23 130
6:1 170
6:9 106
6:10 175n2
6:15 80
6:17 201

Ephesians 2, 4–6, 8, 12n11, 15n15, 19–22, 25–26, 28, 30, 62n21, 98n29, 108, 179–80
1–2 48
1–3 125, 129
1:1 6n3, 28, 67, 110, 126
1:1–2 31–34
1:2 212
1:3 21, 24, 37–39, 51, 57, 60, 64–65, 74, 117, 135, 200
1:3–14 3, 35–53, 53n1, 97
1:4 33, 39, 41, 58, 97, 100, 133, 166, 188–89
1:4–5 41n7, 45, 80
1:4–6 39–43
1:4–14 125
1:5 41–42, 49, 67
1:6 21, 36, 42–43, 49, 51, 57, 73n16
1:7 36, 43–45, 68
1:7–8 56
1:7–10 61
1:7–14 59
1:8 36, 45
1:9 24, 45, 46, 67, 105, 176
1:9–10 65, 45–48, 191
1:10 26, 37n2, 46–48, 62, 66, 77, 94, 107, 111, 125, 135, 140
1:10–14 58, 176
1:11 49, 49n18, 50, 67, 83
1:11–12 80, 110
1:11–14 48–52
1:12 36, 49, 51, 57, 73n16
1:13 21, 50, 56n6, 158, 166, 205, 207, 207n12
1:13–14 37–38, 40, 50–51, 56, 83
1:14 24, 36, 44, 49, 57, 73n16
1:15 55n2, 59, 66, 134, 207, 211
1:15–16 55, 143
1:15–23 3, 9, 53, 53–65, 53n1
1:16 118
1:16–19 120
1:17 21, 45, 56, 96, 123, 139, 142
1:17–19 53, 56–59, 141
1:17–23 117
1:18 58–59, 110–11, 120, 129, 133
1:18–19 58, 142
1:18–23 125
1:19 54, 59, 77, 120, 122n12
1:19–22 57
1:19–23 138–39, 200
1:20 21, 36–37, 39, 60n12, 62, 76
1:20–22 48
1:20–23 59–66, 205n8
1:21 24, 59, 62, 67, 69, 77, 112, 163, 165, 204
1:21–23 60
1:22 24, 62, 112, 187
1:22–23 62, 64–65, 123, 135, 140
1:23 63
2 vii, 3, 49, 58, 64–66, 93, 103–4, 111, 120, 129, 145, 169, 171
2–3 166, 208, 210
2:1 48, 66, 73, 148, 172, 211
2:1–3 48, 66, 176
2:1–4 48, 72
2:1–5 42, 145, 152
2:1–10 3, 43, 61, 66–82, 75, 81, 83–84, 85n2, 101, 125, 129
2:1–18 76
2:1–22 100n38
2:2 69–70, 80, 85, 129, 138, 139n18, 168
2:2–3 71, 85
2:3 43, 67, 70–71, 168
2:3–4 74
2:4 66, 72–74
2:4–7 72
2:5 66, 78, 146, 148
2:5–6 60, 60n12, 72, 77, 200
2:5–7 66, 73–78
2:6 21, 36–38, 87
2:6–7 76–78
2:7 24, 69, 74, 74n19, 77–78, 122n12, 160
2:8 74, 78n22, 103, 146, 207
2:8–10 66, 78–82
2:9 78–80
2:9–10 79
2:10 68, 79, 129
2:10–11 85, 125
2:11 86, 106, 145
2:11–13 84–90, 95
2:11–18 89
2:11–22 3, 40, 82–104, 109, 115–16, 145, 129
2:11–3:3 76
2:12 87, 96–97, 148n2
2:13 28, 48, 96
2:13–18 96n26
2:14 91n18, 92, 100
2:14–15 92, 94
2:14–16 95, 206
2:14–18 84, 90–96, 90n14
2:15 88, 91n17, 93–94, 128, 139n18
2:15–22 89
2:16 92, 96, 110, 133
2:16–22 178
2:17 95–96
2:17–18 207
2:18 96, 113, 175
2:18–22 84
2:19 33, 87, 97, 99
2:19–22 34, 100, 166
2:20 32, 98, 109, 141, 141n21
2:20–21 98, 142
2:20–22 99–100, 121, 123
2:21 128
2:21–22 99, 144
2:22 98, 106, 116, 120n7, 158, 175
3 3–4, 8, 26, 29, 32, 39, 102–4, 123–24, 134, 204, 209, 209n16
3–4 125–27
3:1 15, 104, 114, 116
3:1–6 200
3:1–7 103
3:1–10 24
3:1–11 191
3:1–12 207, 210
3:1–13 15, 18, 32, 103–16, 104n2, 124–25, 127, 178
3:2 105, 107, 111, 113, 114n21, 126, 146
3:2–7 104, 107–10
3:2–12 114
3:2–13 103n1, 106, 116
3:3–4 46
3:4 105
3:5 26–27, 33, 109–10, 109n13, 168n6, 175
3:5–6 98
3:6 109, 110n15, 111, 141, 168
3:7 110, 126, 136, 139n18
3:7–13 76, 200, 204–6
3:8 111, 111n18, 141
3:8–12 104, 110–13
3:8–13 9, 103
3:9 46, 80, 107, 111, 135, 213
3:10 21, 36–38, 60, 111, 204
3:11 113
3:12 113, 113n19
3:13 104, 114, 114n21, 125
3:14 104–5, 119n5
3:14–15 117–19, 134–35
3:14–21 115–16
3:15 37n2, 135n12, 163, 165
3:15–21 116–24
3:16 119n5, 121, 123
3:16–17 118, 120
3:16–19 117, 119–23
3:16–21 200
3:17 99, 158
3:18 118, 121, 122n11
3:18–19 141
3:19 77, 121n10
3:20–21 117, 123–24
4 4, 117, 124, 159n7, 210
4–5 206
4–6 123, 125, 129
4:1 15, 68, 80, 161–63, 174, 198–99, 201
4:1–2 129n4, 131
4:1–3 133, 135
4:1–6 127, 129–36, 188
4:1–7 144, 213
4:1–16 4, 125–44
4:1–6:9 199, 200, 204
4:2 129–30, 130n6
4:2–4 145
4:3 128, 131n6, 132–33, 136, 140, 192, 204, 207, 212
4:3–4 134
4:3–6 135
4:3–7 189
4:4 96, 132–33, 158
4:4–6 96, 125, 132–33, 136
4:5 134, 142, 207
4:5–6 134
4:7 135–36
4:7–10 140, 136–40
4:7–16 135, 139
4:8 136–38, 140n19, 172
4:8–10 25, 139
4:9 139n18
4:9–10 136, 138–39
4:10 140
4:11 33, 98, 136, 140–42, 140n20
4:11–12 142n22
4:11–16 136, 140–44
4:12 99n33, 141
4:12–13 142
4:12–16 141
4:13 viii, 143n23, 158, 188
4:14 143, 203n4
4:15 123, 156, 187, 190, 205
4:15–16 62
4:16 99n33, 143–44
4:17 68, 80, 161, 174
4:17–18 147
4:17–19 145–49, 152
4:17–24 4, 145–54
4:18 87n6
4:19 148, 149n4, 164
4:20 150–51, 151n6
4:20–24 145, 147, 149–53
4:21 50, 107, 151, 151n6
4:21–22 125, 152
4:22 70
4:22–24 151, 153
4:23 152, 152n8
4:23–24 150
4:24 80, 153, 155, 203, 203n5, 206
4:24–25 50
4:25 205
4:25–32 160–61n10
4:25–5:2 4, 154–62
4:26 156–57, 159
4:26–27 194
4:27 69
4:28 157
4:28–29 155
4:29 158, 166
4:30 24, 132–33, 158, 175
4:31 156, 159
4:31–32 159
4:32 160–61, 160n9
5 162
5:1–2 161, 161n10, 202n3
5:1–6 161n10
5:2 68, 80, 161–62, 174, 188
5:3 39n6, 149, 167, 170
5:3–5 19
5:3–7 163–69
5:3–14 4, 163–73
5:3–20 180
5:4 166, 178
5:5 24, 149, 165, 167
5:5–6 169–70
5:5–9 168
5:6 69
5:7 168n6, 169
5:8 68, 80, 169, 171–72, 174, 204
5:8–12 176
5:8–14 169–73
5:9 50, 169, 205–6
5:10 170
5:11 170
5:12–14 171–73
5:13 170
5:13–14 172
5:14 171–72
5:15 68, 80, 174, 182
5:15–16 175n1
5:15–20 4, 174–78, 182
5:16 176, 205
5:17 176
5:18 177–78, 182
5:19 37, 175, 177
5:19–22 186
5:20 178
5:20–21 186nn4–6
5:21 182, 188, 192, 196
5:21 183
5:21–24 181, 186–88
5:21–33 25, 198
5:21–6:9 4, 16, 18, 179–98
5:22 123
5:22–33 186, 186n5
5:22–6:9 186
5:23 62, 190
5:25 161
5:25–27 183, 188, 190
5:25–33 181, 188–92
5:26 189, 208
5:27 40
5:28 183–84, 190–91
5:28–31 191
5:29 184–85, 192
5:30 190
5:31 25n26, 184, 191
5:31–32 25
5:32 26, 46, 191
5:33 183–84, 192
6 162, 179, 204, 206, 209, 209n16
6:1 184
6:1–4 181, 192–95
6:2 92
6:2–3 104n2
6:3 194
6:4 184, 194, 195n20
6:5 185, 195–96
6:5–8 181, 196–97
6:5–9 193, 195–98
6:6 196
6:8 24
6:9 37n2, 181, 185, 195n22, 196
6:10 120, 199n1, 200–201, 203
6:10–11 203, 203n5, 208
6:10–13 202–5
6:10–17 194
6:10–20 4, 199–210, 203n6
6:11 69
6:12 18n16, 21, 25, 36–38, 60, 61n17, 200–201, 204, 209
6:13 24, 176, 205
6:13–14 202
6:14 50, 139n18, 208, 208n15
6:14–17 9, 205–8
6:15 96
6:16 207
6:16–17 139n18
6:17 203n6, 207–8, 207n12, 208n14
6:18 128, 175, 209
6:18–20 191, 202, 205, 208–10, 208n15, 209n16
6:19 24, 46, 141
6:19–20 209
6:20 8, 15
6:21 15
6:21–22 18–20, 211–12
6:21–24 211–13
6:22 128
6:23 212
6:23–24 212–13

Philippians 12n12, 29, 78n22, 116n1
1 24
1:1 33, 34n7, 106
1:2 31, 212
1:6 50, 78, 133, 194n18
1:7 39n6
1:9 41, 118n2
1:11 66
1:12–19 106
1:12–26 114
1:26 79
1:27 129, 200n2
1:27–2:18 24n24
1:28 106
2:1 107
2:1–4 130
2:1–11 160
2:3 130
2:3–4 187
2:6–8 130, 188
2:6–11 57, 75, 138
2:9 62n19
2:9–11 134
2:10 119
2:10–11 47
2:12 74, 183, 196
2:15 171
2:22 192
3 115
3:1 201
3:1–10 68n1
3:2–10 70n9
3:2–12 108
3:3 79
3:4 105
3:4–14 23
3:7–8 150
3:7–14 150–51
3:9 150, 152
3:10 59–60
3:10–11 23, 150
3:10–12 76
3:12–14 150
3:15–17 23
3:20 37n2, 74
4:6 118n2
4:8 201
4:10–13 38
4:18 162

Colossians 12n11, 17, 19–20, 32, 62n21, 78n22, 179–80, 197
1:2 31, 33–34, 34n7, 135
1:3 55, 135
1:3–4 53
1:5 37n2
1:9 105
1:9–14 53
1:12 36, 49, 59
1:12–13 58
1:13 43, 67
1:13–14 68
1:15–16 61
1:16 37n2, 60, 80
1:18 62
1:20 37n2
1:21 87n6
1:24–29 18, 109
1:25 107n5
1:26 109n13
1:26–27 46n13
2:2 46n13, 105
2:7 98, 141
2:6 150
2:8 168
2:9–10 122
2:10–13 189
2:12 60
2:13 73, 73n16, 160n9
2:14 92n20
2:16–23 79
2:18 130
2:19 128
2:23 130
3:1 60
3:5 19
3:5–7 163
3:8 159, 159n7, 166
3:8–14 163
3:10 80, 147, 153n9
3:12 130
3:12–13 159n7
3:13 160n9
3:14 132n10
3:15–16 175
3:18–4:1 16, 18, 179
3:20 184
3:22 185, 195
4 212n2
4:3 46n13
4:3–4 209n16
4:7 212
4:7–8 18–20, 211
4:12 106
4:12–13 32n4
4:16 30, 32n4

1 Thessalonians 12n12, 76
1:1 31, 34n7
1:2 118n2
1:2–10 53
1:3 55
1:6–7 76
1:10 63, 66, 76
2:7 184
2:12 63, 129, 146
2:13–17 53
2:17 128
3:8 200n2
3:12–13 41
4:1 126, 126n2, 201
4:10 126n2
4:13 172
5:1 46n14
5:2–4 205
5:6–7 172
5:8 206n10
5:8–9 207
5:14 126n2, 130
5:17 118n2
5:19 158
5:24 63
5:25 118n2

2 Thessalonians
1:2 31, 212
1:3–4 53
1:4 131
2:7 46
2:13–15 53
2:15 200n2
2:16 135
3:1 201
3:6–15 157
3:13 106

1 Timothy 8, 32
1:3 8n5
2:4 48
2:4–5 48
3:9 46
3:15 70
3:16 46
4:10 48
5:20 170
6:1 196n24

2 Timothy 32, 78n22
1:9 79
2:7 105
2:15 128
3:16 185
4:2 130, 170
4:5 141
4:12 212

Titus 32
1:5 105
2:9 196n24
2:12 185
3:5 79, 189
3:10 185
3:12 212

Philemon 12n12
3 31, 135, 212
4 55
4–5 53
5 54
18 157

Hebrews
1:13 62
2:5–9 62
2:14 62, 204n7
4:11 128
6:5 77
9:11 86
9:15 44
9:24 86
11:35 44n9
13:18 70

James
1:18 50
1:19–20 156
5:19–20 170

1 Peter 18, 98n29, 179–80, 197
1:2 56n4
1:3–12 35
1:17 70, 185
2 99
2:4–8 98
2:9 51
2:18–3:7 179
2:25 141
3:6 183
3:8 160
3:18–21 138
3:19 138n15
3:21 189
3:22 60
5:8 203
5:9 212

2 Peter
1:4 148, 161
1:10 128
1:15 128
2:13 183
2:18 70
3:9 48
3:14 128

1 John
1 151n6
5:16 170

Revelation
1–3 61n15
2:1–7 168n5
11:15 167
12:10 167
12:17 203
13 61
14:10 159
OTHER JEWISH WORKS

OT APOCRYPHA

1 Esdras
4:26 70

Judith
8:18 117

1 Maccabees
2:6 159
10:39 33
15:9 57

2 Maccabees
2:8 57
3:22–28 60
3:35 94
8:4 159
8:17 87
10:35 159
13:14 87
15:24 159

3 Maccabees
2:26 149n4
3:3–4 94

4 Maccabees
8:7 87
17 87
17:7 87n8
17:9–10 87n8

Sirach
4:22 185
4:27 185

Susanna
6 202

Tobit
1:18 159
5:8 202
13:1–17 35
14:5 46n14

Wisdom of Solomon
5:18 206
9:17 56n5
11:24 72
13–14 147
14:26 149n4

OT PSEUDEPIGRAPHA

Apocalypse of Moses (L.A.E.)
3.2 71

Ascension of Isaiah
7.9–12 69
10.16 57

1 Enoch
6–16 138n15
13.6 138n15
14.21 57
15.4–7 138n15
18.12–19.2 138n15
61.10 60
93.6 91

2 Enoch
20–22 60

4 Ezra
4.37 46n14

Jubilees
2.2 61
7.21 138n15
10.1–9 138n15
15.26 94

Letter of Aristeas 19n18
139 91
142 91

Odes of Solomon
15 58n9

Psalms of Solomon
17:24–25 94

Pseudo-Phocylides
195–97 188n9
207 194n19

Testament of Benjamin
3.4 69

Testament of Dan
4.7–5.1 157n4
5.4–13 205

Testament of Isaac
6.1–4 196n23

Testament of Levi
3.1–3 69
3.4 57, 60
3.8 60
10.1 7

Testament of Simeon
4.4 160
6.1 7

Testament of Zebulon
5.1 160
7.2 160
8.1 160

RABBINIC LITERATURE

Babylonian Talmud
Šabbat 31a 89n13

Mishnah
’Abot 3.18 91

Numbers Rabbah
8.4 89n13
6 193

JOSEPHUS AND PHILO

JOSEPHUS
Against Apion
2.206 192n14

Jewish Antiquities 19n18
3.217 94
3.318–19 94
10.104 146
15.11.5 90

Jewish War
4.9.2 130
5.5.2 90

PHILO 161n11
Confusion of Tongues
137 60

Decalogue
121 193
165–67 192n14

God Is Unchangeable
54 185

Planting
14 60

Rewards and Punishments
14.81 45n12

Questions and Answers on Genesis
2.177 62n21

Special Laws
2.45 60
2.261 193

Virtues
186 91

DEAD SEA SCROLLS

Damascus Document
3.15 42

4QFlorilegium (4Q174)
1.6–7 99n35

Rule of the Community (1QS)
6.13–22 89n13
7.21 89n13
8.4–10 99n35
8.18 89n13
9.5–6 99n35
9.15 89n13

Thanksgiving Hymns (1QH)
11.19–22 73n16
11.23 73n16
17.14 73n16
19.10–12 73n16

War Scroll (1QM)
1.10–13 205n8
OTHER CHRISTIAN WORKS

ANONYMOUS
First Clement
36.2 58n8
46.6 9n6
59.3 58n8

Martyrdom of Polycarp
9.2 88n10

Muratorian Fragment 18, 18n17

AUGUSTINE
Christian Instruction
2.4.1 122n11

Confessions 49n19

CHURCH FATHERS 44n11

CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 18

Protrepticus / Exhortation to the Greeks
1.8.1 69n7

Stromata/Miscellanies
4.8 9n6
4.60 28

CLEMENT OF ROME 18

CYPRIAN
Epistles
73.21 34n8

EUSEBIUS
Ecclesiastical History
6.12 18n17

GREGORY OF NYSSA
Life of Moses
219–55 58n10

HIPPOLYTUS

Refutation of All Heresies
6.14.6 69n6

IGNATIUS
To the Ephesians
1.1–2 9n6

To Polycarp
12.1 9n6

IRENAEUS 18, 47n15
Against Heresies
1.1.1 69n6
1.10.1 47
5.2.3 9n6
5.8.1 9n6
30.2.11 69n6

JEROME 47, 47n16, 69nn6–7; 111n17, 114n21, 137

JOHN CHRYSOSTOM 47
Homilies on the Epistle to the Ephesians
2
1 47n17
3 55n2
4 78n23
5 85n2
6 105, 108n9
7 122, 122n13
11 137
13 149
32 196

JUSTIN
First Apology
5–6 88n10
61.12 58
65.1 58

Dialogue with Trypho
39.2 58
122.1–2 58
122.6 58

MARCION 28, 28n27, 32, 32n4, 109n11

ORIGEN 10, 17, 58n10, 69n6, 106, 108n9, 109n10, 111n17, 122n11, 131n7, 132n9, 136–37

Against Celsus
3.20 28

POLYCARP 18

TERTULLIAN 18, 47
Against Marcion
4.5 28
5.11 28
5.11–12 28n27
5.17 32, 32n4

Monogamy
5 47n16

Prescription against Heretics
36 18
OTHER ANCIENT WORKS

ARISTOTLE 45n12, 180
Nicomachean Ethics
4.8 164
9.12.7 132

DIO CHRYSOSTOM 180

Oration 17
Coveteousness 7 149

DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS
180
Roman Antiquities
2.26 192n14

EPICTETUS
Discourses
1.9.10 130
3.24.56 130

HELLENISTIC MAGICAL TEXTS
60n14

HERODOTUS
Histories
8.52 207n11

HOMER
Iliad 205
16.326–330 208

LIVY
History of Rome
21.8 207n11
21.8.12 207

MUSONIUS RUFUS 180

NAG HAMMADI CODICES

Exegesis of the Soul 18
II.6.131 18n16

Hypostasis of the Archons 18
II.86.21–25 18n16

PLATO 161n11, 180
Republic
7.5.520a 132

PLINY THE YOUNGER
Epistles
10.96 177n5

PLUTARCH 180
Alcibiades
8.1 149n4

Moralia
28F–9A 194n19
143A 188n9
274B 69

TACITUS
Annals
14.42 196n25

THUCYDIDES
History of the Peloponnesian War
2.75.4 207n11

VIRGIL
Aeneid 205

INDEX OF SUBJECTS AND AUTHORS
Abbott, T. K., 106n3, 139nn16–17; 183
Abel, 156
Abraham, 27, 39, 40, 41, 42, 76, 88, 88n9, 108, 110, 183
abusive speech, 159
Acts, Book of
Ananias and Sapphira in, 157
on Ephesus and Paul, 6–9, 15, 83n1, 106, 130
on Gentiles incorporated into people of God, 39
on Holy Spirit, 50
on humility, 130
on pagan shrines, 86
on Pentecost, 177
Peter in, 117, 157
Philip in, 141
on resisting the Holy Spirit, 158
on shepherding functions within church, 141
on widows, 157
Adam, 68, 72, 94, 161n11
adelphos (brothers), 212
adoption
as children of God, 41–43
in Old Testament, 42, 42n8
Roman law on, 42
Aeneid (Virgil), 205
agapē (love), 41, 118, 130, 188. See also love
aiōn (period of time), 69
aischrologia (indecent speech), 166
aischrotēs (shameful behavior), 166
akatharsia (impurity), 149, 149n4
akrogōniaios (cornerstone), 98
Alcibiades, 149n4
alētheuein (speaking the truth), 128
alienation between Gentiles and Jews. See reconciliation between Jews and Gentiles
alienation from God
of Gentiles, 87, 88, 89, 95, 96–98, 125, 145–49, 152
sin as cause of, 3, 42, 48, 66, 67–72
See also sin
Allan, John A., 34n7
Allen, Thomas G., 73, 74n19
allotment, 36–37, 49
Amos, Book of, 39
anakephalaiōsasthai (summing up points of argument), 47
Ananias, 157
andra (mature man), 128
angels, 59, 60–62, 61n15, 61n17, 119n4
anger, 154, 155, 156–57, 157n4, 159. See also wrath of God
anthrōpareskoi (pleasing to people), 185
Antiquities (Josephus), 19n18
apēlgēkote (becoming insensitive), 146
apocalyptic, 22–25, 22nn20–21, 176
Apollos, 6
apolytrōsis (redemption), 43
apostles, 32–33, 98, 104, 109, 109n14, 127, 140–41, 144. See also Paul
Aquila, 6
Aquinas, Thomas. See Thomas Aquinas
archē (rule), 60
Aristotle, 45n12, 132, 164, 180
armor of God, 200–208, 210
Arnold, Clinton E., 9, 60n14, 61, 61n16, 62n19, 69, 205n9
arrabōn (down payment), 37, 50–51
ascension of Christ, 59, 127, 138–40, 139n16
asceticism, 67, 79
aselgeia (wanton), 148–49
atheoi (without God), 88
atonement, 162. See also death of Jesus Christ
Augustine, 49n18
authority and authorship, 10–11
authorship of Ephesians
and abolition of the law, 92
and allusions to Old Testament, 25–27
attestation of, 18
authority linked with, 10–11
Colossians compared with Ephesians, 16, 17, 18–20, 209n16
conclusions and suggestions on, 27–28
eschatology and, 22–25
and final words, 212
historical question of, 16–18
household codes and, 197n26
interpretation and, 11–15
and Pauline theology and biography, 15–16
reading theologically and, 9–11
Romans compared with Ephesians, 68n3
and style of Ephesians, 14, 17, 21, 53n1, 104, 123, 126
and themes of Ephesians, 17, 21–27, 75
and vocabulary of Ephesians, 12, 17, 20–21

Balch, David L., 179
Balthasar, Hans Urs von, 48
baptism
and confession of faith in Jesus as Lord, 134
of Ephesians, 154
of Jesus, 43
of John, 6, 7
liturgy of, 153
New Testament on, 189
and sealing with Holy Spirit, 50n20
union with Christ in, 39
Barclay, John, 127
Barnabas, 69
Barth, Marcus, 39n6, 63n22, 67, 90n15, 94n25, 133, 144
Bassler, Jouette M., 197
Bauckham, Richard, 57
benediction, 6, 212–13. See also blessing
Benoit, Pierre, 63, 63n23
Best, Ernest
on armor of God, 208
on authorship of Ephesians, 69n8, 109n14, 110n16
on baptism, 189
on Christ’s love, 121nn9–10
on church as body of Christ, 62n20
on church in Ephesus, 168n6
commentary of generally, 1–2
on desires of the flesh, 70n10
on earthly Jesus versus Christ, 151n6
on Ephesians as alienated from God, 88
on eschatology of Ephesians, 196n25
on faith, 134
on final words of Ephesians, 211
on flesh versus mind-set, 71
on gifts of God, 140n20
on glory of church through Christ, 123
on God as Father, 135
on God’s plan, 111
on good works, 80n26
on Holy Spirit, 132
on household codes, 179
on idolatry, 167n4
on imitating God, 161n11
on kingdom of Christ and of God, 168n5
on life of God, 148
on mystery of Christ, 109n12
on new person, 147, 151
on paganism, 9, 61
on parent-child relationship, 193n16
on Paul’s apostolic ministry, 107, 108n7
on Paul’s prayer for Ephesians, 54, 55
on peroratio, 199
on physical imagery for church, 144
on pseudepigraphy, 10n7
on reconciliation between Jews and Gentiles in Christ, 89, 90, 90n14, 94
on relationship between Letters to Ephesians and Colossians, 19–20, 19n18, 109n13, 122–23, 132n10
on salvation and faith, 78n24
on spatial imagery, 121
on strength in the Lord, 205n9
on superiority of Christ, 62
on thanksgiving, 166
on transition from sin to new life in Christ, 74
on Trinity, 123
on vice list, 165
on vocabulary of Ephesians, 105, 111n18, 128, 135, 144, 146, 155, 161n10, 164, 183, 185, 208n15
on walking wisely, 175n1
Bible. See Jesus Christ; New Testament; Old Testament; and specific books of the Bible
bitterness, 159
Bjerkelund, Carl J., 126n2
blasphēmia (abusive speech), 159
blessing
of Abraham, 76
“in Christ,” 38–39
cosmic to local dimensions of God’s drama of salvation, 35, 36, 48–52
final benediction, 6, 212–13
“heavenly realms” and, 36, 37–38
Holy Spirit and, 37, 38
introductory blessing in Ephesians, 3, 4, 35–52, 97
in Old Testament, 35
praise for God’s choice of people of God, 35, 36, 39–43
praise to God for blessings, 35, 36, 37–39
and redemption in Christ, 35, 36, 38, 43–49
and results of redemption, 35–36, 45–48
spiritual versus material blessings, 37–38
text of introductory blessing, 35–36
boasting in the Lord, 79, 80
bodily resurrection. See resurrection of the body
body, human
cohesion and coordination of, 99, 99n33, 127, 143–44
physical imagery of, 143–44
Body in Question, The (Dawes), 63
body of Christ
baptism and, 189
believers’ submission to Christ in, 187–88
Christ as bridegroom of, 123, 159, 190
Christ as head and cornerstone of, 32–33, 62–65, 98–100, 123, 127, 178, 187–88
Christ’s love for, 188–91
church as, 26, 34, 39, 40, 46, 53, 54, 62, 64–65, 77, 123
clothing imagery and, 151–54
diversity of members within, 131–32
gifts for building up, 142–44
and global mission of church, 101–2
God’s kindness and, 77
as joined and knitted together, 47, 99, 127, 128, 143–44
love within, 132n9
mutual submission in, 186–87, 196
and reconciliation of Jews and Gentiles in one body, 24, 95, 96, 97, 101, 110, 133, 200
See also church
Book of Common Prayer, 73n15, 81n28
Brett, Mark, 13, 13n13
Bruce, F. F., 91n18, 105
Budde, Michael L., 176
building metaphor, 98–100, 99nn30–35; 142–43, 144

Cain, 71, 156–57
Caird, George B., 139n17
Calvin, John, 2, 60n12, 91n18, 93, 108n9, 187n7, 193n15, 194n17
Caragounis, Chrys C., 46, 108n9, 118
Carr, Wesley, 61n17
Cassidy, Richard J., 15n15
Catherine of Siena, 121n8
charis (gifts), 126
charismata (gifts), 126, 140n19. See also gifts of God
charitoō (bestow grace), 43
charizomenoi (graciousness, forgiveness), 160n9
children
adult state compared with, 127, 143, 143n23
care of, by nurse, 184
Israel as abandoned child, 189
obedience of, 182, 192–95
parents’ relationship with, 132, 181–82, 184–85, 192–95
training of, 194–95
children of disobedience, 66, 67, 69–72, 163, 168, 169, 176
chreia, 155
Christ. See Jesus Christ
Christianity
and “being in Christ,” 34, 68, 68n1
divisions and disunity of, 132–33, 144, 210
and “early Catholicism,” 22, 22n22
and faith in Christ and love for one another, 55, 55n2
global mission of, 101–2, 197–98
persecution of Christians, 23, 131, 170
relationship of, to Israel as essential to Christian identity, 101
transition from charismatic to institutional Christianity, 24
See also church
Chrysostom, John
on allotment, 49
on Christ’s descent into hell, 138
on faith, 78n23
on Gentiles’ corrupt behavior, 149
on God’s promised outpouring of the Spirit, 50n21
Homilies by, 2
on love for the saints, 55n2
on love of enemies, 122, 122n13
on meaning of anakephalaiōsasthai (summing up, knitting together), 47
on mutual submission in the church, 196
on new creation, 85n2
and reference to earlier epistle to Ephesians, 105
on relationship between Old and New Testaments, 108n9
on Satan, 137
church
building metaphor for, 98–100, 99nn30–35; 142–44
Christ as bridegroom of, 123, 159, 190
Christ as gift to, 63, 64
Christ as head and cornerstone of, 32–33, 62–65, 98–100, 123, 127, 178, 187–88
Christ’s love for, 188–91
cleansing of, 183, 189
as contrast society, 171
different offices and ministries in, 127, 140–41, 144
divisions and disunity of, 132–33, 144, 210
as essential for salvation, 34n8
fullness in, 63–64
growth of, 143
holiness of, 40, 188–90, 203
and liberation from captivity to sin, 74
lordship of Christ and, 34
reconciliation between Jews and Gentiles and, 114
relationship of, with surrounding community, 165n2, 168–69, 169n7, 172–73, 173n12
as single organism with differing parts, 140
Spirit/Holy Spirit in, 46
submission to Christ in, 187–88
truth and, 205–6
unity between Christ and, 25–26
and witness against principalities and powers, 111–13, 200, 204–5, 207–8, 210
See also body of Christ; Christianity
circumcision, 83, 84, 94
Clement of Alexandria, 9n6, 18, 28
Clement of Rome, 18
clothing imagery, 151–54
Colossians, Letter to
on allotment, 36–37, 49
on angels, 59
and ascetic philosophy, 67, 79
on baptism, 73n16, 189
on believers’ breaking free of pagan past, 76
building metaphor in, 98
compared with Ephesians, 12n12, 16, 17, 18–20, 30, 122–23, 132n10, 160n9, 184, 209n16
on false teaching, 168
final words of, 211
on forgiveness, 160n9
on fullness of God, 122–23
on God’s anger, 159
greeting in, 19, 31, 33, 34
household codes in, 16, 18, 179, 180
on humility, 130
on Jesus as Son of God, 43
on movement from darkness to light for believers, 58
on mystery, 18, 46n13
on new life in Christ, 73, 73n16
on new person in Christ, 147, 150
Paul’s identification as apostle in, 32
on realm of darkness, 67
on saints/holy ones, 33, 34, 36–37
on slavery, 195
on synesis, 105
Tychicus in, 18, 19–20
vice list in, 19, 159n7, 163, 166
compassion, 160
Confessions (Augustine), 49n18
contrast society, 171
Corinthians, First Letter to
allusions to Old Testament in, 25–26
building metaphor in, 98, 99
on church, 140
on death as enemy, 68
on death of Jesus Christ, 75
on ends of the ages, 46n14
on future leading to Christ’s dominion, 78
on gentleness, 130
on God as Father of believers, 134
greeting in, 33
on kingdom of God, 23
on knowledge of God, 58
on lines of authority within church, 192, 197
on Lord’s Supper, 134n11
on marriage between believers and nonbelievers, 183
meaning of physis (nature) in, 71
and Paul’s apostolic ministry, 29, 32, 110
on persecution, 131
on praising God, 178
on prostitutes, 25–26
on second coming of Christ, 194n18
on sin, 171
on singleness, 197
on slavery, 195
on spiritual gifts, 64
standing firm imagery in, 200n2
on strength versus weakness, 203
on temple prostitution and idolatry, 167n4
Corinthians, Second Letter to
on death of Jesus Christ, 75
on down payment, 50
on eschatology, 24–25
on forgiveness, 160n9
greeting in, 33
on heavenly realms, 38
on Jews, 27
on lines of authority within church, 192
on new creation, 38, 80
on outward/inner contrast, 120
on patience, 131
and Paul’s apostolic ministry, 29, 32, 108, 108n8, 114, 142, 190n11
on Titus, 196
on uncleanness and sexual misconduct, 165
corrosive speech, 158
covenants between God and Israel, 39–42, 49, 51–52, 87–88, 88n9, 91, 102
covetousness, 149, 149n4, 163–68
cross, fourfold dimensions of, 122n11
See also death of Jesus Christ
crucifixion. See death of Jesus Christ
Cyprian, 34n8, 64

Dahl, Nils A., 91n18, 96n26, 121
Daniel, Book of, 105, 175
darkness versus light, 58, 67, 163, 169–74
Darko, Daniel K., 145n1, 165n2, 169n7, 180
David, 88, 128
Dawes, Gregory W., 55, 63, 186n6, 187n8
Dead Sea Scrolls, 55n3
death
and Adam’s disobedience, 68
as consequence of sin, 48, 66, 67–72, 81–82, 85
as enemy, 68
sleep metaphor for, 172
transition from sin to life in Christ, 66–78, 83
See also death of Jesus Christ
death of Jesus Christ
abolition of the law through, 92
atonement and, 162
Ephesians on, 44, 75–82
God’s love and, 44
new creation and, 80, 94, 95
in New Testament generally, 75–76
obedience of Jesus Christ to, 44, 57, 59–60, 69, 138, 160, 161
as offering and sacrifice, 161–62
and Paul’s apocalyptic view, 23
and reconciliation of Jews and Gentiles, 94, 114
redemption through, 44, 68, 89
See also redemption; salvation
Decalogue, 193
Demetrius, 7, 8
deomai (beg or make request), 118n2
Deuteronomy, Book of, 33, 39, 42, 43, 49, 184, 189
devil, 69, 69n6, 154, 203–4. See also Satan
Dibelius, Martin, 179
digressio, 103
dikaios (proper, right), 184
Dio Chrysostom, 149, 180
Dionysius of Halicarnassus, 180, 192n14
disobedience
of Adam, 68, 94, 161n11
children of disobedience, 66, 67, 69–70, 163, 168, 169, 176
and ruler of realm of air, 69, 176
and servitude to oppressive and tyrannical masters, 81
See also obedience; sin
dispotēs (slave owners), 196n24
dividing wall between Jews and Gentiles, 84–85, 90–91, 90n14, 92–95
Dixon, Suzanne, 188n9
domata (gifts), 140n19
dominion of Christ. See lordship of Christ
Donaldson, Terence L., 94n24
Donelson, Lewis R., 138n15
doxology, 117, 123–24
drunkenness, 177
Dunn, James D. G., 113n20, 138
dynamis (power), 60

eklērōthēmen (allotment), 36–37, 49
ektrephei, ektrephō (nurture), 184–85
election, 39–42, 45, 49
elenchete (expose), 170
eleos (mercy), 72n15
Eliezer, 42
Elijah, 119
Elizabeth, 159
Elliott, John H., 181
Engaging Scripture (Fowl), 2, 11, 11n8, 181n3
Engberg-Pedersen, Troels, 170
enkakein (to treat badly), 106
Epaphras, 32n4
Ephesians, Letter to
approaches to commentary on, 1–2
argument of, 3–4
authority of, 10–11
authorship of, 9–28
on breaking free from pagan past, 5, 145–53
on Christian unity and a life worthy of God’s call, 5, 125–44
on common life worthy of the Gospel, 5, 154–62
compared with Acts narratives of church’s founding in Ephesus, 6–9, 15
compared with Colossians, 12n12, 16, 17, 18–20, 30, 122–23, 132n10, 160n9, 184, 209n16
on contrast between Ephesians’ past and their present in Christ, 84, 85–90
dating of, 12
on death of Christ, 44, 75–82
doxology in, 117, 123–24
on Ephesians’ alienation from God and from people of Israel, 84, 90–96
eschatology of, 22–25, 125, 196n25
final words of, 6, 211–13
on freedom from bondage to sin, 5, 43–44, 66–82
on grace of God, 5, 36, 42–43, 103–15
greeting in, 3, 19, 31–34
household codes in, 4, 5, 16, 18, 179–98
indicative versus imperative chapters of, 125
interpretation and authorship of, 11–15
introductory blessing in, 3, 4, 35–52
obscure passages in, 63–65
Old Testament allusions in, 25–27, 31, 33
omission of “in Ephesus” from greetings of, 28–29, 31–32
outline of, 4–6
Paul’s prayer for Ephesians in, 3, 4–5, 53–65
Paul’s requests to God on behalf of Ephesians in, 5, 116–24
recipients and occasion of, 28–32, 32n4
on reconciliation between Jews and Gentiles in Christ, 3, 5, 24, 26–27, 29, 30, 49, 83–103, 109, 110
on strength in the Lord, 4, 5, 199–210
style of, 14, 17, 21, 36, 53, 53n1, 104, 123, 126
text of, 31, 35–36, 54, 66–67, 84–85, 104–5, 117, 127, 145–46, 154–55, 163, 174, 182, 201, 211
themes of, 17, 21–27
theological reading of, 9–11
vice list in, 19, 159, 163, 165–69
vocabulary of, 12, 17, 20–21
on walking wisely, 4, 5, 174–78
on walking worthily with eye on the world, 4, 5, 29, 30, 163–73
See also Paul
Ephesus
Apollos in, 6
Book of Revelation on church in, 168n5
conflicts in, 7, 8
Gentiles in church in, 7, 8, 29, 83, 101
Jews in, 6, 83n1, 101
magic and spiritual powers in, 7, 9
Paul’s relationship with church in, 6–9, 15, 83n1
Priscilla and Aquila in, 6
temple of Artemis in, 7, 61
Timothy in, 8n5
See also Ephesians, Letter to
Epictetus, 130, 180
episkopoi (bishops or overseers), 141
equality, 41
eschatology
of Ephesians, 22–25, 125, 196n25
of Galatians, 22, 23, 24–25, 24n24
God’s wrath and eschatological judgment, 71
and Paul’s imprisonment, 114
of Philippians, 22, 24n24
eschaton, 77
Essenes, 73n16
euangelion, 141
Eusebius, 18n17
eutrapelia (coarse jesting), 164
evangelists, 127, 140–41, 144
evil. See Satan; sin
Exegesis of the Soul, The, 18, 18n16
exelexato (he chose), 41
Exodus, Book of, 31, 33, 39, 42, 165, 184, 193, 193n16
exousia (authority, realm), 60, 67
Ezekiel, Book of, 100, 100n38, 112, 161–62, 165n1, 189–90

faith
in Christ, 54, 55, 64, 104–5, 113, 143
good works versus, 67
holiness and, 148
of mature person, 143
profession of one faith, 134, 142
salvation and, 67, 78–79
shield of, as God’s armor, 207
faithfulness
of Christ, 78, 113
of God, 104–5
of saints/holy ones, 34, 34n6
falsehood, 157n4, 158
families. See households
Fee, Gordon D., 158n6, 208n14
final words of Ephesians, 6, 212–13
Findlay, James A., 155
forgiveness
human forgiveness of each other, 155, 160–61, 160n9, 171
of sins, 43, 44, 68, 131, 160, 160n9, 161, 171, 190
fornication. See sexual misconduct
Foucault, Michel, 24n25
freedom, 81
fullness
of Christ, 127
of God, 122–23
of times, 46–47, 46n14, 77–78

Gabriel, 43
Galatians, Letter to
on adoption as children of God, 42
allusion to Old Testament in, 27
on baptism, 134
on Christ as fulfillment of God’s promise to Abraham, 39
on Christ as Son of God, 42
on death of Jesus Christ, 75
on desires of the flesh, 70, 70n10, 204n7
eschatology and, 22, 23, 24–25, 24n24, 38n4
on fruit of the Spirit, 169
on fullness of times, 46
on future leading to Christ’s dominion, 78
and grace for believers, 116n1
on holiness, 148
on Jews and torah observance, 29
kairos as opportunity in, 175n2
on law, 64, 91–93
on lines of authority within church, 192, 197
meaning of physis (nature) in, 71
on new creation, 38, 80
on patience, 130
on Paul as Jew, 71
and Paul’s apostolic ministry, 29, 32, 107, 108, 108n6, 108n8, 109, 115
on relationship between Jews and Gentiles, 83, 101, 110
on sin, 27, 70, 70n10, 94, 165
vocabulary of, 20–21
on works of the law, 79
Genesis, Book of
Abraham in, 27, 39, 40, 41, 42, 88, 88n9
on blessing of the nations, 109, 110
Cain in, 156–57
on creation of humans, 153, 184
on down payment, 37
Garden of Eden in, 112
on God’s blessing worldwide, 41
Isaac in, 88
Jacob in, 42, 88
on union of husband and wife, 25–26, 184, 191, 192
Gentiles
alienation of, from God, 87, 88, 89, 95, 96–98, 125, 145–49, 152
alienation of, from Jews, 48, 84, 89, 90–96
baptism of, 154
covetousness of, 149, 163–66
Ephesians as fellow citizens with saints, 96–97, 99, 101
Ephesians as members of household of God, 97–98
in Ephesus church, 7, 8, 29, 49n18, 83, 101
exclusion of, from commonwealth of Israel and covenants of promise, 87–88
failure of, to walk worthily, 147–49, 152
identity of, 85–88, 86n3, 95, 106–7
idolatry of, 86, 91, 94
ignorance of, and hardness of heart, 148–49, 151
impurity and, 149
and mystery of Christ, 109–10
pagan past of, 5, 145–53
as people of God, 39, 40
presence of Holy Spirit in lives of Gentile believers, 40
putting on new person in Christ, 145, 146, 149–55
and realm of air, 69
and remembering their Gentile past, 83–90, 95–98, 100–102, 116
as uncircumcised, 86
See also reconciliation between Jews and Gentiles
gentleness, 130
gifts of God
for building up body of Christ, 142–44
Christ as gift to church, 63, 64
for formation of Christians, 142
grace as, 77–78, 136–37, 140, 142
Holy Spirit and, 176
nature and purpose of, 127, 140–44
offices or ministries of the church as, 140–41, 144
Old Testament on, 25
for preservation and maintenance of unity, 126, 127, 136–44
revelation as, 56–58, 126, 142
Trinitarian origin of, 134–35, 140
wisdom as, 56–58, 64
for work of service, 142
glory
of church through Christ, 123
of God, 21, 35, 36, 49, 51–52, 57–59, 120, 123–24
Gnilka, Joachim, 153n9, 164, 171n9, 193
Gnosticism, 18, 18n16, 37
God
ability of, to act on behalf of humans, 118
access to, 113
adoption as children of, 41–43
armor of, 200–208, 210
boundless giving of, 120
Christ’s resurrection and, 53, 54, 57–65, 120
cosmic conflict between antidivine powers and, 66
covenants between Israel and, 39–42, 49, 51–52, 87–88, 88n9, 91, 102
creative activity of, 80
as Creator, 111, 119
and death of Christ, 44
election by, 39–42, 45, 49
faithfulness of, 104–5
as Father of believers or Father of all, 134–35, 135n12
as Father of glory, 57
as Father of Jesus Christ, 37, 42, 43, 117, 135, 174, 175
fidelity of, 58
fullness of, 122–23
glory of, 21, 35, 36, 49, 51–52, 57–59, 120, 123–24
goodness of, 64
holiness of, 162
humans made in image of, 72–73, 147, 153
imitation of, 161, 161n11
inheritance of, 58–59, 111
judgment of, 48, 71, 133, 149, 169, 185
kindness of, 77, 160, 161
knowledge of, 56–58, 64, 142
mercy of, 72–75, 72n15, 77, 82, 130
plan of, 111
power of, 53, 54, 57–65, 117, 118–19, 122n12, 123–24
praise to, 3, 35, 36, 39–43, 49, 51–53, 55n3, 57, 177–79
predestination by, 41–42, 45
righteousness of, 27, 29, 40
singularity of, 134–35
Spirit/Holy Spirit and, 37, 38, 50–51, 51n22
strength of, 4, 5, 199–210
will of, 41, 45–48, 67, 109–15, 170, 176
wisdom of, 45, 75, 111–14, 121
wrath of, 48, 71–72, 159, 163, 166, 168
YHWH as Hebrew name of, 134
See also alienation from God; gifts of God; grace; Jesus Christ; kingdom of God; love of God; redemption; salvation; Spirit/Holy Spirit
Gombis, Timothy G., 66, 103n1, 139n17
goneis (parents), 184
Good Samaritan parable, 72
good works, 67, 79, 80–81, 85, 88
Gorman, Michael J., 23, 75n20
grace
believers’ bearing witness to, 26
and Christ as gift to church, 64, 67
in final words of Ephesians, 212
and Gabriel’s pronouncement to Mary, 43
as gift, 77–78, 136–37, 140, 142
glory of God’s grace, 35, 36, 49
God’s provision of, as necessary, 7
good works and, 80–81
of Holy Spirit, 177
in introductory blessing, 35, 36, 212
justification by, 74–75, 96n27
and kindness of God, 77
love and, 41
meanings of, 42–43
and mystery of God’s will, 45
new creation by, 80
Paul as interpreter of, 103–15
Paul’s prayer regarding, for Ephesians, 116–24
peace and, 96n27
salvation through, 45, 66–67, 74–75, 78–82, 103
unity and, 136–37
unlimited nature of, 120, 122n12
use of, in greeting, 31
greetings
in Colossians, 19, 31
common elements in, among New Testament Letters, 31, 33, 212
in Ephesians, 3, 19, 31–34
omission of “in Ephesus” from, 28–29, 31–32
Paul’s identification as apostle in, 32–33
saints/holy ones in, 31, 33–34
text of, 31
Gregory of Nyssa, 58n10

hagiasē (make holy), 183
hagioi (holy ones), 31, 59
haplotēs, 196n23
Harris, W. Hall, III, 128, 128n3, 137, 137n14, 139nn17–18
Hay, David M., 60n13
heart
hardness of, 148–49, 148n3, 151
as inner person, 120, 185
singing and making melody in, 174, 175
heaven
believers and, 76, 77
Christ in heavenly realms, 37–38, 54, 57, 60, 66, 67, 76, 77
Ephesians on “heavenly realms,” 36, 37–38, 37nn2–3
Irenaeus on, 37
New Testament on, 37n2, 38
Old Testament on, 38
Hebrews, Letter to, 44, 44n9
Heil, John Paul, 6, 32, 175, 189, 206
hell, Christ’s descent into, 138, 139
Herodotus, 207n11
Hierapolis, 28, 32n4
Hippolytus, 69n6
history as succession of times, 46–47, 46n14
Hoehner, Harold W.
on adoption, 42
on alienation between Gentiles and Jews, 91n18
on apostles and prophets, 140
on armor of God, 207n12, 208n13
on authorship of Ephesians, 17, 18, 110n16
on baptism, 153, 189
on believers in Christ, 49n18
on Christ’s love, 121n10
commentary of generally, 1–2
on conflicts between Jewish and Gentile believers, 129n4
on destination of Ephesians, 31n1, 32n3
on faith, 55, 134
on final words of Ephesians, 211
on forgiveness, 160n9
on futility of human works and sufficiency of God’s work, 79
on Gentiles, 147
on gifts of God, 142, 142n22
on God as Father, 117, 135
on Holy Spirit, 132
on household codes, 179, 184
on humility, 130n5
on idolatry, 167n4
on life of God, 148
on love, 41n7
on master-slave relationship, 196
on mercy of God, 72
on mystery of Christ, 109n12, 139
on new person, 147, 150, 151
on Paul’s apostolic ministry, 108n7
on Paul’s prayer for Ephesians, 54, 55, 63, 63nn23–24
on physical imagery for church, 143
on praise of God, 36, 39n6
on realm or authority, 67
on salvation and faith, 78n24
on Satan’s rule, 67
on strength in the Lord, 205n9
on truth, 156n2
on vice list, 165
on vocabulary and grammar of Ephesians, 20n19, 69, 71, 105, 118, 128, 132n10, 135, 139n18, 143, 146, 161n10, 163, 164, 174, 175, 183, 185, 201, 202, 208n15
holiness
and adoption as children of God, 42–43
alienation from, 148
Christian identity and, 166
of church and believers, 40, 188–90, 203
faith and, 148
faithfulness and, 34, 34n6
of Gentiles and Jews, 99, 100–101
of God, 162
love and, 41
and new person in Christ, 152
in Old Testament, 33, 39
of people of God, 39–40, 97, 99, 100–101, 133, 166
saints/holy ones in greeting of New Testament Letters, 31, 33–34
See also saints/holy ones
Holy Spirit. See Spirit/Holy Spirit
Homer, 205
Homilies (Chrysostom), 2
hope, 48, 54, 58, 133
households
christological interpretation of household arrangement, 188–91, 198
Colossians on household codes, 16, 18
contemporary reactions to household code in Ephesians, 197–98
Ephesians as members of household of God, 97–98
Ephesians on household codes, 4, 5, 16, 18, 179–98
Genesis on husband-wife relationship, 25–26
husband-wife relationship in, 25, 181–84, 186–92
master-slave relationship, 181–82, 195–98
parent-child relationships, 132, 181–82, 184–85, 192–95
purpose and function of household codes, 180
reasons for inclusion of, in Ephesians, 180
Roman law on, 181
source material for household codes, 179–81
huiothesia (adoption), 41–42
human body. See body, human
humility, 130, 130n5, 187
husband-wife relationship. See households
hymns, 35, 55n3, 133, 172, 172n11, 174, 177, 177n5
hyperanō (authority, power, status), 60
Hypostasis of the Archons, The, 18, 18n16
hypotassō (submit), 183

idolatry, 86, 91, 94, 149, 165, 167, 167n4. See also paganism
Iliad (Homer), 205
imitation of God, 161, 161n11
impurity, 149, 167
incarnation, 138–39
indecent speech, 163, 166
interpretation
and authorial motives versus author’s communicative intentions, 13–15
authorship and, 11–15
of undisputed Pauline Letters, 12–13
Irenaeus, 9n6, 18, 28, 37, 47, 69n6
Isaac, 88
Isaiah, Book of
on blessings of the nations, 39, 109
on breastplate of righteousness, 206
christological reading of, 90, 96, 141
on Israel as Beloved One, 43
on Messianic figure, 205
Paul’s allusions to generally, 25, 172
on peace, 80, 90, 96, 112
on prayer, 119
on provoking the Spirit, 158n6
on Spirit of the Lord, 56, 57
stone images in, 98
warrior imagery in, 203n6, 207
Israel
as beloved one, 43
commonwealth of, 87, 148n2
covenant between God and, 39–42, 49, 51–52, 87–88, 88n9, 91, 102
Ephesians’ alienation from, 48, 84, 89, 90–96
Ephesians’ relationship to, 83–102
God’s promise to reunite Judah and, 100
holiness for, 97
slavery of, in Egypt, 59, 97, 101
See also Jews and Judaism; Old Testament

Jacob, 42, 88
James, 39
James, Epistle of, 55
Janus sentence, 186n6
Jeal, Roy R., 58n8, 125n1
Jeremiah, Book of, 73, 79
Jerome, 47, 69n7, 111n17, 114n21, 137
Jerusalem, 6, 7, 8
Jerusalem temple, 86, 90, 99n35
Jesus Christ
ascension of, 59, 127, 138–40, 139n16
baptism of, 43
as beloved one, 21, 43
birth of, 46
blessings and, 38–39
building metaphor on, as cornerstone or capstone, 32–33, 98–100, 99nn30–32, 123
descent of, into hell, 138, 139
and drama of salvation, 3–4, 23, 24, 43–52, 58
earthly Jesus versus Christ, 151n6
faithfulness of, 78, 113
faith in, 54, 55, 104–5, 113
on “first” commandment, 193
as fulfillment of Old Testament, 27
fullness of, 127
gentleness of, 130
in Gethsemane, 209
God’s love for, 43
as Good Shepherd, 141
as head of all things, 62–65
in heavenly realms, 37–38, 54, 57, 60, 66, 67, 76, 77
Holy Spirit and, 50, 57, 120, 120n7, 139
incarnation of, 138–39
indwelling of, in hearts of believers, 120
light of, 172
lordship and dominion of, 34, 43, 47, 57, 77–78, 133–34, 136–38, 183, 185, 196
on love, 55n2
love of, 76, 77, 121–24, 121n9, 122n11, 155, 161, 188
meaning of “being in Jesus Christ,” 34
mystery of, 26–27, 39, 104, 108–15, 109n11, 178, 191–92
obedience of, 44, 57, 60, 69, 138, 160, 161
patience of, 131
peacemaking by, 84, 90–91, 92, 96, 100, 206–7
power and superiority of, 60–66
prayer by, 119n3
putting on new person in Christ, 145, 146, 149–55
reconciliation between Jews and Gentiles in, 3, 5, 24, 26–27, 29, 30, 49, 83–103, 109, 110
redemption in, 35, 36, 38, 43–49, 53
rulership and authority of, 62, 74, 74n19
second coming of, 50, 194n18
Sermon on the Mount by, 184
as Son of God, 37, 42, 43, 117, 135, 143
transfiguration of, 43
truth in, 50
union with, 39, 73–74, 77, 82
See also body of Christ; church; death of Jesus Christ; resurrection of Christ
Jews and Judaism
advantages of, 87, 87n5
alienation of Gentiles from, 48, 84, 89, 90–96
on angelic and other spiritual powers, 60–61, 61n18
circumcision and, 83, 94
in Ephesus, 6, 83n1, 101
household codes and, 179, 180
moral admonitions of, 154
new creation and, 95
and obedience to the law, 27, 91–95, 120n6
Paul as Jew, 23, 40, 49n18, 61, 71, 86n3, 93–94, 115
presence of Spirit/Holy Spirit in lives of Jewish believers, 40
pseudepigraphy and, 10
torah and, 29, 92, 93–94, 93n23, 97, 101, 137
See also reconciliation between Jews and Gentiles
Job, Book of, 105, 121, 131
Joel, Book of, 50
John, Gospel of
on Abraham rejoicing in Jesus, 108
on Christ as vine, 202–3
on Christian community, 171
on Christ’s commandment to love one another, 55
on salvation, 73
on sin, 171
John the Baptist, 6, 7
Josephus, 19n18, 90, 94, 146, 192n14
Judaism. See Jews and Judaism
judgment of God, 48, 71, 133, 149, 169, 185
Justin, 88n10
Justin Martyr, 58n9

kairoi (times), 46n14
kairos (opportunity), 175n2
Käsemann, Ernst, 22, 22nn20–22
katargeō; (nullify, void), 91–92
kata sarka (earthly), 185, 197
katharisas (to cleanse), 183
kathos (just as), 39, 39n6
kindness, 77, 155, 160, 161
kingdom of Christ and of God, 167–68
kingdom of God, 22, 23
Kings, First Book of, 35
Kirby, John C., 34n6, 103n1
klēros (allotment), 49
Kreitzer, Larry J., 28, 32n4
ktizō (create), 80
kyrioi (earthly masters), 196, 197
kyrios (Lord, master), 134, 185, 196
kyriotēs (dominion), 60

Laban, 42
Lampe, G. W. H., 46
Laodiceans, Letter to, 28, 30, 32, 32n4
La Potterie, Ignace de, 63n23
law
abolition of, through death of Jesus Christ, 92
distortion of, by sin, 94, 94n25, 97, 120n6
as divisive, 94, 94n25
Jews’ obedience to, 27, 91–95, 120n6
moral versus ceremonial laws, 93
Romans and Galatians compared with Ephesians on, 91–93
work of the law, 79
Lemcio, Eugene E., 8n4, 168n5
Letter of Aristeas, 19n18, 91
Levenson, Jon Douglas, 61n18
Levering, Matthew, 61n18, 93n22
Leviticus, Book of, 33, 39
light versus darkness, 58, 67, 163, 169–74
Lincoln, Andrew T.
on aiōn (period of time), 69
on alternative destination of Ephesians, 32n4
on armor of God, 206, 208
as asceticism, 79
on audience of Ephesians, 67
on authorship of Ephesians, 11n10, 69n8, 74, 108n8, 109n14, 110n16, 194n18
on baptism, 189
on boasting, 79
on building metaphor, 98
on children versus adult state, 143n23
on Christ as beloved one, 43
on Christ’s ascension, 139n17
on church’s growth, 143
commentary of generally, 1–2
on covenant between God and Israel, 88
on drunkenness, 177
on Ephesians 3 as digressio, 103
on Ephesians as alienated from God, 88
on exhortations in New Testament, 126n2, 146
on faith, 55, 134
on final words of Ephesians, 211
on flesh versus mind-set, 71
on fullness of times, 46n14
on futility of human works and sufficiency of God’s work, 79
on gifts of God, 142
on God as Father, 134, 135
on God’s blessing in Christ, 39
on God’s election of believers, 42
on God’s plan, 111
on God’s wisdom, 112
on heavenly realms, 36, 38
on Holy Spirit, 132
on household codes, 180n2
on love, 41n7
on master-slave relationship, 196
on meaning of physis (nature), 71
on mercy, 72n14
on mystery of Christ, 109n12
on new creation, 94
on new person, 147, 150, 151, 151n6
on organization of Ephesians, 6
on parent-child relationship, 193
on Paul’s apostolic ministry, 107, 107n4
on Paul’s imprisonment, 114
on Paul’s prayer for Ephesians, 54, 55n3, 58, 59n11, 63
on peacemaking by Christ, 96
on peroratio, 199, 199n1
on physical imagery for church, 144
on realm or authority, 67
on relationship between Letters to Ephesians and Colossians, 19, 109n13, 160n9
on resurrection of Christ and believers, 77
on salvation, 74, 78n24
on Satan’s rule, 67
on sources for Ephesians, 133
on Spirit/Holy Spirit, 51n23
on strength and power from Holy Spirit, 120
on strength in the Lord, 203n5, 204, 205n8
on Trinity, 96
on use of Old Testament in Ephesians, 25–26
on vice list, 165
on vocabulary and grammar of Ephesians, 21, 111n18, 118, 128, 132n8, 135, 139n18, 144, 146, 155, 161n10, 163, 164, 175, 183, 185, 186n5, 195n20, 208n15
Livy, 207, 207n11
Loader, J., 89n13
Logos (ruling principles of cosmos), 62n21
logos (word of God), 208
logos sapros (evil talk), 155
Lohfink, Gerhard, 33, 34, 171
lordship of Christ, 34, 43, 47, 57, 77–78, 133–34, 136–38, 183, 185, 196
Lord’s Supper, 134n11
love
agapē 41, 118, 130, 188
of Christ, 76, 77, 121–24, 121n9, 122n11, 155, 161, 188–91
Christ on love for all, 55n2
Christ’s love for church, 188–91
desire and, 152
of enemies, 122, 122n13
of Holy Spirit, 51n22
between husbands and wives, 182, 183, 188, 190–91
of neighbors, 122, 155
patience and, 130–32, 130–31n6
predestination and, 41–42, 45
in Roman marriages, 188n9
for saints, 52, 54, 55, 55n2
truth and, 51n22, 127, 131, 143, 205
and unity of the Spirit, 132n9, 136
walking in love, 161, 174
See also love of God
love of God
being filled with, 123
being rooted and grounded in, 120–22
Catherine of Siena on, 121n8
for Christ, 43
and death of Jesus Christ, 44
grace and, 43
Holy Spirit and, 176
infinite nature of, 122
knowledge of, 122
mercy and, 66–67, 72–73, 77, 82
Old Testament on, 43, 72–73
and Paul’s requests to God on behalf of Ephesians, 123
peace and, 212–13
salvation and, 78
Thomas Aquinas on, 41, 51n22, 72–73
and transition from sin to life in Christ, 72–75
as unconditional, 44
Luke, 7
Luke, Gospel of
building metaphor in, 99n30
on Elizabeth and Mary, 159
on Gabriel’s pronouncement to Mary, 43
on mercy, 72
on prayer, 209
on redemption, 44
on synesis, 105
Lyall, Francis, 42
lying. See falsehood
Lyonnet, Stanislaus, 44n11

Maccabees, Books of, 33, 87, 87n8, 94
MacDonald, Margaret Y.
on Christ as capstone or cornerstone, 98, 99n32
on Christ as gift to the church, 63n22
on enlightenment, 58
on Ephesians’ separation from surrounding society, 165n2, 169n7, 173n12
on God’s blessing, 39
on God’s drama of salvation, 108n7
on God’s will, 67
on household codes, 180n2
on knowledge of God, 56
on vocabulary and grammar in Ephesians, 41n7, 175
machaira (sword), 208
magic and spiritual powers, 7, 9, 61, 62n19
manthanō; (to learn), 150
Marcion, 28, 28n27, 32, 32n4
Marcionism, 109n11
Mark, Gospel, 43, 105, 209
marriage. See households
Martin, Dale B., 195n21
Martin, R., 100n36, 100n38
Martyn, J. Louis, 23
martyrs. See persecution of Christians
Mary, 43, 159
master-slave relationship, 181–82, 195–98
Matthew, Gospel of, 130, 159, 184
McHugh, John, 47n15
McKelvey, Robert J., 98, 99n32, 99n34
memory of Gentile past, 83–90, 95–98, 100–102, 116
mercy, 72–75, 72n15, 77, 82, 130
mesotoichon tou phragmou (dividing wall), 84–85
Messiah, 23, 43, 87, 145, 205
methodeia (deceptive schemes), 203n4
Metzger, Bruce M., 54, 128n3, 183, 201
military imagery, 137–38, 200–208, 210
mirror-reading, 127, 129n4
Montanism, 109n10
Morganthaler, Robert, 20n19
Moritz, Thorsten, 164, 172n11
Moses, 42, 88, 88n9, 137, 139n17
Moule, C. F. D., 63n24
Muddiman, John, 11n9, 13n14, 32n4, 44n11, 134, 148, 189
Muratorian Fragment, 18
Musonius Rufus, 180
Mussner, F., 73n16
mystery
of Christ, 26–27, 39, 104, 108–15, 109n11, 178, 191–92
of fullness of times, 47
of God’s drama of salvation, 3–4, 23, 24, 27, 43–53, 58, 76, 83, 108, 116, 191–92, 200, 207, 209, 210
of God’s will, 45–46, 50, 109–15, 170, 176
of gospel, 202
New Testament Letters on, 46
of Paul’s gospel, 8, 18, 24, 46, 50
of redemption, 142

Nag Hammadi, 18
Nebuchadnezzar, 175
Neufeld, Yoder, 49n18
new creation, 38, 80, 81, 85, 94–96
new person in Christ, 84, 94–96, 145, 146, 147, 149–54, 206
New Testament
on age to come, 77
on baptism, 134, 189
on “being in Christ,” 34n7, 68n1
on believers’ confronting and admonishing one another regarding sin, 170
blessing and/or thanksgiving in NT Letters, 53
on boasting in the Lord, 79
building metaphor in, 98–100, 99n30, 99n33
on children of disobedience, 69–71
on Christ as Lord, 134
on Christ seated at God’s right hand, 60
on Christ’s power and superiority, 60–62
on circumcision, 86
on confidence, 105
on connections between Christ and Spirit, 120n7
on covetousness, 149, 149n4
on death of Jesus Christ, 75–76
on desires of the flesh, 70, 70nn9–10
doxologies in, 123
on evil day, 205
exhortations in, 126, 126n2, 128, 146
on faith, 78n22
on flesh and blood, 204n7
on flesh versus spirit, 185
on God as Father of believers, 134–35
on God as Father of Jesus Christ, 135
on God’s creative activity, 80
on God’s judgment, 48, 185
greetings in NT Letters, 31, 33, 212
on heaven, 37n2, 38
on Jerusalem temple, 86
meaning of physis (nature) in, 71
on mystery, 46
obscure passages in, 63–65
on offices and ministries of the church, 141
on pattern of conduct or way of life, 70
on Paul as slave of Christ, 106
on Paul’s apostolic ministry, 29, 32, 107, 108, 142, 209
on praise of God, 35, 39n6
on prayer and kneeling, 118n2, 119, 119n3, 209
on redemption and salvation, 43–44, 48, 73, 74
on resurrection of Christ, 23, 60, 73, 76
on saints/holy ones, 31, 33–34
sleep metaphor in, 172
standing firm imagery in, 200n2
walking metaphor in, 68, 129
on weariness or discouragement, 106
See also Ephesians, Letter to; Jesus Christ; Paul; and specific books of New Testament
nooumen (we think), 118
nouthesia (admonition), 185
Numbers, Book of, 37, 49

obedience
of children, 182, 192–95
and children of disobedience, 66, 67, 69–72, 163, 168, 169, 176
to Christ, 185
of Jesus Christ, 44, 57, 60, 69, 138, 160, 161
of slaves, 182, 185, 195–98
torah obedience, 93–95
See also disobedience
O’Brien, Peter Thomas, 61n16
oikodomē; (act of building), 99n33
oikonomia (administration, stewardship), 46–47, 107, 111
Old Testament
on abusive speech, 159
adoption in, 42
on allotments, 36–37, 42n8, 49
allusions to, in New Testament Letters, 25–27, 31, 33
on angels, 59, 61
on being seated at right hand of God, 60
blessing in, 35
on blessing of the nations, 109, 110
christological interpretation of, 60, 62, 90, 96, 108–9, 136–39, 141
on circumcision, 86
covenants between God and Israel in, 39–42, 49, 51–52, 87–88, 88n9, 91, 102
on covetousness, 149, 165
on down payment, 37
on evil day, 205
on Gentiles, 89n12
on glory of God, 57
on hardness of heart, 148n3
on heaven, 38
on hedge, fence, or dividing wall, 84–85
on holiness for Israel, 97
holy ones/saints in, 33, 39
on idols, 86
on Israel as beloved one, 43
on judgment, 185
on kneeling for prayer, 118–19
on love of God, 72–73
on patience, 130
on pattern of conduct or way of life, 70
on peace, 80, 96, 100, 112
on people of God as God’s inheritance, 58–59
and promise-and-fulfillment pattern, 26, 27
Shema in, 134
shepherd imagery in, 141
on “sons of men,” 105
on thinking patterns and mind-set, 70–71
in undisputed Pauline Letters, 25–27
on work as poiēma, 79
See also Israel; Jews and Judaism; specific persons; and specific books of the Old Testament
onoma, onomazō, onomazesthō (name, naming, be named), 62n19, 163, 165
ophthalmodoulia (eyeservice, eyecatching), 185
Origen
on authority of Scripture, 10
on authorship of Ephesians, 17, 28
on devil, 69n6
on diversity among church members, 131n7
on patience, 111n17
on Paul as prisoner of Christ, 106
on process of coming to know God, 58n10
on relationship of Old and New Testaments, 108n9
on Satan, 137
Osiek, Carolyn, 195n21

paganism
Acts on pagan shrines, 86
attitude of, toward humility, 130
breaking free of pagan past, 76, 145–53
Christian Ephesians’ relationship with, 165n2, 168–69, 169n7, 172–73, 173n12
in Ephesus, 5, 7, 61
and Gentile identity, 95
magic and spiritual powers in, 7, 9, 61, 62n19
pseudepigraphy and, 10
sexual misconduct and, 164, 168
Page, Sydney H. T., 142n22
paideia (training), 185
palē (struggle, wrestle), 201–2
Paraclete, 171
parakalō (exhort), 128
paraenesis (moral instruction), 125, 126, 199, 199n1
parent-child relationship. See households
Parousia, 22, 22n20, 77–78, 157
pastors and teachers, 141, 144
pateres (fathers), 184
patience, 130–32, 130–31n6
patria (family, social groups), 117, 135n12
Paul
Acts narratives on, 6–9, 15, 83n1, 106, 130
apocalyptic view of, 22–25, 176
apostolic ministry of, 7, 8, 15, 29, 32–33, 103–15, 126–27, 142, 209–10
and authorship of Ephesians, 9–28
biography of, 15–16
as Christ’s prisoner or slave, 106–7, 126, 127, 129
church in Ephesus and, 6–9, 15, 83n1
connections of, to Ephesians, 53, 54, 55–56
Damascus road experience of, 23, 27, 108n6
healing by, 7
imprisonment and sufferings of, 8, 15, 24, 29, 38, 77, 106, 114, 114n21, 209–10
as interpreter of grace of God, 103–15
in Jerusalem, 6, 7, 8
Judaism of, 23, 40, 49n18, 61, 71, 86n3, 93–94, 115
mystery of gospel of, 8, 18, 24, 46, 50
persecution of Christians by, 23
role of, within drama of salvation, 107, 110–15, 207, 209
in Rome, 8
theology of, 15–16
transformation of, through “learning Christ,” 150–51
undisputed Pauline Letters, 12–13, 12n12, 16, 17, 20–26, 74, 75
See also Ephesians, Letter to
peace
Christ as peacemaker, 84, 90–91, 92, 96, 100, 206–7
in final words of Ephesians, 212–13
grace and, 96n27
Old Testament on, 80, 96, 100, 112
unity and, 130, 132, 136
See also reconciliation between Jews and Gentiles
Pentateuch, 25
Pentecost, 139, 139n17, 177
Percy, Ernst, 32n2
peripoiēsis (possession), 51
perizōsamenoi (gird), 202
peroratio, 199, 199n1
pērōsis (blindness), 146
persecution of Christians, 23, 131, 170
Peter, 117, 157
Peter, First Letter of
audience for, 212
on baptism, 189
on believers, 51
building metaphor in, 99
on Christ’s descent into hell, 138, 138n15
compared with Ephesians, 98n29
on compassion, 160
household code in, 18, 179, 180, 183
stone images in, 98
Peter, Second Letter of, 148, 183
Philemon, Letter to, 54
Philip, 141
Philippians, Letter to
on “being in Christ,” 68n1
on believers shining as light, 171
on death of Jesus Christ, 75–76
eschatology and, 22, 24n24
on future leading to Christ’s dominion, 78
on God’s blessings, 38
and grace for believers, 116n1
greeting in, 33
on Holy Spirit, 50–51
on humility, 130, 187
on incarnation, 138
on insight, 45
on institutional Christianity, 24
on kindness, 160
on lordship of Christ, 47
on love, 41, 188
on name of Christ as above all names, 62n19
on obedience, 196
on offering to God, 162
and Paul’s apostolic ministry, 108, 115
on Paul’s imprisonment and sufferings, 29, 114
on Paul’s transformation through “knowing Christ,” 150–51
on prayer, 119
on resurrection of the dead, 23
on second coming of Christ, 194n18
standing firm imagery in, 200n2
Phillips, J. B., 171–72
Philo, 45n12, 62n21, 63, 91, 161n11, 185, 192
phobētai (respect), 184, 186n5
phobos (fear, obedience to higher authority), 183, 186n5, 192
phronēsis (insight, prudence), 45, 45n12
physis (nature), 71
pisteōs (faith), 78n22
pistis autou, 113, 113n19
pistis Christou, 113
Plato, 132, 161n11, 180
plērōma (fullness), 54–55, 63–64
Pliny the Younger, 177n5
Plutarch, 69, 149n4, 180, 188n9, 194n19
pneuma (spirit), 56n4, 67
poiēma (work), 79
Polycarp, 18
pōrōsis (hardness), 146
Porter, Stanley E., 41
power
of Christ, 60–666
Christ’s resurrection and God’s power, 53, 54, 57–65, 120
of God, 53, 54, 57–65, 117, 118–20, 122n12, 123–24
from Holy Spirit, 120
of sin, 68
powers and principalities. See principalities and powers
praise to God, 3, 35, 36, 39–43, 49, 51–53, 55n3, 57, 177–79
prayer
content of Paul’s prayer for Ephesians, 53, 54, 56–59
covering everything with, 6, 208–10
and God’s power displayed in Christ’s resurrection, 53, 54, 57–65
by Jesus, 119n3
kneeling during, 117, 118–19
New Testament on, 53, 66, 209
and Paul’s connection to Ephesians, 53, 54, 55–56
Paul’s prayer for Ephesians, 3, 4–5, 53–65
Paul’s requests to God on behalf of Ephesians in, 5, 116–24
and strength in the Lord, 208–10
text of Paul’s prayer for Ephesians, 54
thanksgiving for Ephesians and, 54, 55–56, 64
for wisdom and revelation, 56–58, 142
predestination, 41–42, 45
presbeuō (ambassador), 209
principalities and powers, 24, 37–38, 48, 59, 104, 111–13, 200, 204–5, 210
Priscilla, 6
proorisas (he predestined), 41
prophets, 98, 104, 109, 119, 127, 140, 144. See also specific prophets
proselytes, 89n13
proseuchomai (praying), 118n2
proskarterēsis (perseverance), 202
prosōpolēmpsia (judge at face value), 185
prostitution, 25–26, 167n4
prudence, 45, 45n12, 46
Psalms
christological interpretation of, 60, 62, 136–39
on gifts from God, 25
on God’s blessings, 35, 39
on holy ones, 33
military imagery in, 137–38
on Moses, 136–37, 139n17
on praise of God, 49
on “sons of men,” 105
stone images in, 98
on thanksgiving, 166
on wickedness, 89n12, 166
on wisdom and prudence, 45
pseudepigraphy, 10, 15n15, 32n4, 104
pseudonymity, 107n4, 108n8, 110n16, 209n16
Ptolemy, 149n4

Qumran, 73n16, 89n13, 99n35, 205n8

Rader, William, 102n39
Radner, Ephraim, 133
Raymond of Capua, 121n8
reconciliation between Jews and Gentiles
in Christ’s body, 3, 24, 95, 96, 97, 101, 110, 133, 200
and Christ’s reconciling work, 90–96, 178, 206–7
church and, 114
and death of Jesus Christ, 94, 114
and Ephesians’ participation in Christ, 96–102
and Gentiles’ remembering their Gentile past, 83–90, 95–98, 100–102, 116
and mystery of Christ, 26–27
and Paul’s role within drama of salvation, 107, 110–15, 207
and resurrection of Christ, 3, 89–90
and Spirit/Holy Spirit, 96
text of Ephesians on, 84
See also peace
redemption
in Christ, 35, 36, 38, 43–49, 53
death of Jesus Christ bringing, 44, 68, 89
as forgiveness of sins, 43, 44, 68, 160
and God’s drama of salvation, 3–4, 23, 24, 27, 43–53, 58, 76, 83, 108, 116, 191–92, 200, 207, 209, 210
Holy Spirit and, 50–51, 51n23
meanings of word used for, 43–44
mystery of, 142
New Testament on, 43–44
results of, 35–36, 45–48
See also salvation
remembering. See memory of Gentile past
repentance, 7. See also forgiveness; sin
resurrection of Christ
appearance of Christ to disciples after, 182–83
God’s power displayed in, 53, 54, 57–65, 120
and God’s relationship with humans, 44
new creation and, 80, 95, 96
New Testament on, 23, 60, 73, 76
and Paul’s apocalyptic view, 23
and reconciliation of Jews and Gentiles to God, 3, 89–90
and second coming of Christ, 50
and transition from sin to life in Christ, 75, 77
resurrection of the body, 23, 73, 76
Reumann, John, 47, 107n4
revelation
gift of, to Ephesians, 56–58, 126, 142
and Paul’s apostolic ministry, 107–8, 126–27
Revelation, Book of, 61n15, 159, 167–68, 168n5
rhēma (word of God), 208
rhytis (wrinkle), 183
righteousness
of believers, 203, 205, 206
breastplate of, as God’s armor, 206
of God, 27, 29, 40
slavery to, 149
truth and, 152–53
Robinson, J. Armitage, 55n3, 91n18, 175
Romans, Letter to
on advantages of Jews, 87, 87n5
allusions to Old Testament in, 27
on baptism, 189
on “being in Christ,” 34n7, 68n1
on darkness versus light, 169
on death of Jesus Christ, 75
on desires of the flesh, 70
exhortation in, 126
on faith in Christ or faithfulness of Christ, 113
on future leading to Christ’s dominion, 78
on Gentiles’ corrupt behavior, 147, 149, 149n4
on gift of faith, 136
on God’s anger, 159
on God’s will, 170
on God’s wisdom, 121
on grace, 96n27, 116n1
greeting in, 34
on Holy Spirit, 176, 177–78
on impurity, 149
on inner person, 120n6
on inscrutability of God’s ways, 105
on law, 71, 91–93
on love of God and Christ, 121–22
meaning of physis (nature) in, 71
on memory, 85
on mercy, 72
on Paul’s apostolic ministry, 32, 194n18
on prayer, 119
on redemption, 43–44
on relationship between Jews and Gentiles, 29, 83, 101, 110
on renewal of believers’ minds, 152
on sin, 43, 68, 68n4, 72, 81, 94
stone images in, 98
on summation of law, 47
on works of the law, 79
Roon, Aart van, 32n4
Root, Michael, 132

Sabourin, Léopold, 44n11
saints/holy ones
attention to and love for, 52
Christ and, 127
early Christians’ use of terms, 33, 33n5
Ephesians as fellow citizens with, 96–97, 99, 101, 126
Ephesians’ inheritance among, 58–59, 111
faithfulness and, 34, 34n6
God’s choice of, 39–43
in greeting of New Testament Letters, 31, 33–34
love and, 41, 121
love for, 52, 54, 55, 55n2
and love of Christ, 121
meaning of, 33
in Old Testament, 33
Paul’s status as least of, 110, 110n16
Saller, Richard, 195n21
salvation
Cyprian on, 34n8
and Ephesians’ relationship to Israel, 83–102
faith and, 67, 78–79
God’s drama of, 3–4, 23, 24, 27, 43–53, 58, 76, 83, 108, 116, 191–92, 200, 207, 209, 210
God’s love and, 78, 82
God’s will for salvation of all, 48
good works and, 79, 80–81
grace and, 45, 66–67, 74–75, 78–82, 103
helmet of, as God’s armor, 207–8
Holy Spirit and, 50–51, 51n23
mystery of, 142
new creation and, 81
New Testament on, 48, 73, 74
past, present, and future elements of, 74, 77
Paul’s role within drama of, 107, 110–15, 207, 209
and transition from sin to life in Christ, 83
See also redemption
Sampley, J. Paul, 192n13
sanctification, 43, 44, 100. See also grace; holiness
Sanders, Jack T., 35n1
Sapphira, 157
Sarah, 183
sarx (flesh), 184
Satan, 44, 44n11, 48, 67, 69, 70, 137, 205. See also sin
Schlier, Heinrich, 43, 109n12, 151n6, 193
Schnackenburg, Rudolf
on alienation from God, 48
on angels, 59n11, 119n4
on armor of God, 208
on baptism, 189
on building metaphor, 98
on covenant between God and Israel, 88
on earthly Jesus versus Christ, 151n6
on Ephesians compared with 1 Peter, 98n29
on final words of Ephesians, 211
on God as Father, 135
on God’s mercy and love, 77n21
on God’s wrath, 71
on heavenly realms, 37n3
on introductory blessing in Ephesians, 39n5, 41n7
on justification by grace or faith, 74n18
on mystery of Christ, 109n12
on Paul’s apostolic ministry, 108n7
on salvation and blessings in Christ, 39n5
on sources for Ephesians, 133
on vocabulary and grammar of Ephesians, 21, 135, 146, 164, 175, 183
on work of the Spirit, 56n6
Schubert, Paul, 53n1
Scott, James M., 42n8
Serapion, 18n17
Sermon on the Mount, 184
servitude. See slavery
sesōsmenoi (you have been saved), 74
sexual impurity, 149, 149n4
sexual misconduct, 149, 149n4, 163, 164–68
shalom (peace), 90. See also peace
shepherd imagery, 141
sin
of Adam, 94, 161n11
admonitions against, 154–62, 165–71
alienation from God due to, 3, 42, 48, 66, 67–72
anger and, 156–57, 157n4, 159
and children of disobedience or wrath, 69–72
of covetousness, 149, 163–68
death as consequence of, 48, 66, 67–72, 81–82, 85
and desires of the flesh and thoughts, 70–71
of falsehood, 157n4, 158
forgiveness of, 43, 44, 68, 131, 160, 160n9, 161, 171, 190
freedom from bondage to, 5, 43–44, 66–82
Galatians on, 27, 70, 70n10, 94, 165
hardness of heart and, 148–49, 148n3, 151
human nature and, 71–72
of idolatry, 86, 91, 94, 149, 165, 167, 167n4
impurity and, 149, 167
of Israel, 59
law and torah distorted by, 94, 94n25, 97, 120n6
power of, 68
Romans on, 43, 68, 68n4, 72, 81, 94
rule of, before Christ, 23
of sexual misconduct, 149, 149n4, 163, 164–68
slavery to, 43–44, 68, 81, 97, 103
transgressions as sins of omission, 68n2
transition from sin to life in Christ, 66–78, 83
vice lists, 19, 149, 159, 159n7, 163, 165–69
walking metaphor for, 68, 69–70
wantonness and, 148–49, 149n4
See also disobedience; repentance; Satan
Skinner, Quentin, 13n13
slavery
Greco-Roman slavery, 195
of human life, 81
to impurity versus righteousness, 149
of Israel in Egypt, 59, 97, 101
manumission of slaves, 43
master-slave relationship, 181–82, 185, 195–98
Paul as slave of Christ, 106
to sin, 43–44, 68, 81, 97, 103
theft by slaves, 157
sleep metaphor, 172
sōma (body), 184
sophia (wisdom), 45n12
spatial imagery, 121
speech
abusive speech, 159
corrosive speech, 158
indecent speech, 163, 166
speaking the truth, 128, 154, 156, 205
spilos (blemish), 183
Spirit/Holy Spirit
as agent of God’s strengthening, 120
baptism and, 50n20
believers as filled by the Spirit, 176–78, 186
believers as temple of, 26
Christ and, 57, 120, 120n7, 138
in church, 46
emphasis on, in Acts, 8
fruit of, 169–70
and gift of wisdom and revelation, 56–58, 142
God’s blessing and, 37, 38
as God’s down payment, 50–51
God’s love and, 176
grace of, 177
grieving the Spirit, 155, 158–59
and hearing word of truth and belief, 50
Jesus on, 50
love of, 51n22
and mystery of Christ, 109
as Paraclete, 171
peace and, 132, 140
at Pentecost, 139, 139n17, 177
presence of, in lives of Jewish and Gentile believers, 40
promise of, 50–51
reconciliation of Jews and Gentiles in one Spirit, 96
salvation and, 50–51, 51n22
sealing with, 50, 50n20, 51, 158, 166
singularity of, 134
sword of, as God’s armor, 208
unity and, 132, 132n9, 133, 140, 144
walking in the light and/or walking according to the Spirit, 169–74
and walking wisely, 175
spoudazō (to make haste, to use effort or zeal), 128
standing firm imagery, 200, 200n2, 205
stealing. See theft
Stoicism, 159n7
Story of Christ (Fowl), 35n1
Strength
armor of God and, 200–208, 210
in the Lord, 4, 5, 199–210
prayer and, 208–10
Spirit as agent of God’s strengthening, 120
standing firm imagery for, 200, 200n2, 205
Stuhlmacher, Peter, 90n15
style of Ephesians, 14, 17, 21, 36, 53, 53n1, 104, 123, 126
symmetochos (participant), 168
synesis (insight), 105
synezōopoiēsen (made alive together), 73
syssōma, 110n15

Tacitus, 196n25
Targum, 137–38
teachers. See pastors and teachers
telos, 46, 62, 63, 93, 95, 120n6, 176
Tertullian, 18, 28, 32, 32n4, 47
Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs, 160
thalpei (cherish), 184
thanksgiving, 54, 55–56, 64, 163, 164, 166–67, 177, 178
theft, 154, 155, 157
themes of Ephesians, 17, 21–27. See also specific themes
Theodotion, 105
Theological Interpretation of Scripture (Fowl), 2, 11, 11n8
Thessalonians, First Letter to
on children, 184
on Christ’s resurrection, 76
on death of Jesus Christ, 76
exhortation in, 126, 146
on love, 41
on patience, 130
present participles in, 63
on quenching the Spirit, 158
standing firm imagery in, 200n2
Thessalonians, Second Letter to, 131, 200n2
Thomas Aquinas
on allotment, 49
on believers as filled by the Spirit, 177
on ceremonial laws (not moral laws) abolished by death of Jesus Christ, 93
on Christ as cornerstone, 99n31
on Christ’s commandment to love one another, 55n2
commentaries of, 2
on divine activity in Christ and in humans, 60n12
on final words of Ephesians, 211
on flesh versus Spirit, 204n7
on God’s love, 41, 51n22, 72–73
on good works, 80
on holiness, 40, 148
on hope, 133
on love of enemies, 122n13
on master-slave relationship, 196
on mystery of Christ, 108n9, 139
on pledge and earnest money, 51n22
on reconciliation of Jews and Gentiles, 99n31
on redemption, 38
on relationship between God and Christ, 37
on renewal of all things, 47
on Satan, 137
on sexual misconduct of Ephesians, 165n1
on sin, 131
on strength in the Lord, 199
on transgressions, 68n2
on wicked, 89n12
on wisdom and prudence, 45n12, 56n5
Thrall, Margaret E., 105, 151n5
Thucydides, 207n11
thyreos (shield), 207
Timothy, 8n5, 141
Timothy, First Letter to, 8, 8n5, 32, 196n24
Timothy, Second Letter to, 32, 130, 141, 212
Titus, 196
Titus, Letter to, 32, 189, 196n24, 212
Tobit, Book of, 35
tois epouraniois (heavenly realms), 36, 37n2
torah, 29, 92, 93–94, 93n23, 97, 101, 137
transfiguration of Jesus, 43
Trinity, 57, 96, 120, 123, 134–35, 140. See also God; Jesus Christ; Spirit/Holy Spirit
Trophimus, 212
truth
Christ as source of, 151, 205
church and, 205–6
love and, 51n22, 127, 131, 143, 205
righteousness and holiness coming from, 152–53
speaking the truth, 128, 154, 156, 205
word of truth, 21, 50–51, 205
Tychicus, 15, 18, 19–20, 211, 212

undisputed Pauline Letters, 12–13, 12n12, 16, 17, 20–26, 74, 75
unity
between Christ and church, 25–26
compared with childishness, 143
exhortation and focus on, 126, 127, 128, 129–36
gifts for preservation and maintenance of, 126, 127, 136–44
grace and, 136–37
Holy Spirit and, 132, 132n9, 133, 140, 144
love and, 132n9, 136
nature and purpose of God’s gifts for, 127, 140–44
peace and, 132, 136, 140
and relationships between people, 135–36
Trinity and, 134–35
walking worthily in Christian unity, 126, 127, 129–36
See also reconciliation between Jews and Gentiles

Valentinian Gnosticism, 37
vice lists, 19, 149, 159, 159n7, 163, 165–69. See also sin
Virgil, 205
virtues
admonitions on, 154–62, 169–73
for common life worthy of the Gospel, 159–62
compassion as, 160
as fruit of the Spirit, 169–70
gentleness as, 130
humility as, 130, 130n5
kindness as, 155, 160, 161
and new person in Christ, 146, 147, 149–54, 206
patience as, 130–32, 130–31n6
thanksgiving as, 163, 164, 166–67, 177, 178
truthfulness as, 205–6
and walking in the light and/or walking according to the Spirit, 169–74
vocabulary
of Ephesians, 12, 17, 20–21
of Galatians, 20–21
See also specific Greek terms

walking metaphor
characteristics needed for walking worthily, 129–32
and Gentiles’ failure to walk worthily, 147–49, 152
for good works, 80–81, 85
for household code, 4, 5, 16, 18, 179–98
humility and gentleness as necessary for walking worthily, 130
meaning of, 68, 129, 199–200
for new person in Christ, 150
in other NT Letters, 69n5
for sins and disobedience, 68, 69–70
on walking in love, 161, 174
on walking in the light and/or walking according to the Spirit, 163, 169–74
on walking wisely, 4, 5, 174–78
on walking worthily in Christian unity, 126, 127, 129–36, 144, 145, 174, 198
on walking worthily with eye on the world, 4, 5, 29, 30, 163–73
Wallace-Hadrill, Andrew, 181
Walters, James C., 42
Wedderburn, Alexander J. M., 34n7
Wengst, Klaus, 133
Westcott, Brooke Foss, 29n28
wife-husband relationship. See households
Wild, Robert A., 161n11
will of God, 41, 45–48, 67, 109–15, 170, 176
Wink, Walter, 208
wisdom
classical authors on, 45n12
gift of, to Ephesians, 56–58, 64, 142
of God, 45, 75, 111–14, 121
prudence and, 45, 45n12, 46
walking in wisdom, 4, 5, 174–78
word of God, 208
word of truth, 21, 50–51, 205
works of the law, 79
wrath of God, 48, 71–72, 159, 163, 166, 168.
See also anger

Yee, Tet-Lim N., 86nn3–4; 87, 91, 97n28
Yoder Neufeld, Thomas R.
on believers in Christ, 49n18
on children of disobedience, 70
on “divine warrior,” 203n6, 206n10, 207n12
on imitators of God, 202n3
on mercy of God, 72n13
on nonconformity, 171n10
on reconciliation between Jews and Gentiles, 100n37
on rescue from captivity to sin, 74
on sons of disobedience, 81n27
Yorke, Gosnell L., 90n16

Zechariah, Book of, 156, 156n2
zōopoiēsen (making alive), 73
Fowl, S. E. (2012). Ephesians: A Commentary. (C. C. Black, M. E. Boring, & J. T. Carroll, Hrsg.) (First Edition.). Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press.

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