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Words from GOD – Words to GOD

Matthew 1-7, The Life of Jesus, part 10, by Archbishop Uwe AE.Rosenkranz

GNOSIS and MEDITATION

Gospel of Mary

3.2 Warning against False Prophets (7:15–23*)

illustration

Trimorphic

Literature
Barth, “Understanding,” 74–75, 159–64.
Hans Dieter Betz, “Eine Episode im Jüngsten Gericht (Mt 7,21–23),” ZThK 78 (1981) 1–30.
Otto Böcher, “Wölfe in Schafspelzen: Zum religionsgeschichtlichen Hintergrund von Matth 7:15,” ThZ 24 (1968) 405–26.
E. Cothenet, “Les prophètes chrétiens dans l’Évangile selon saint Matthieu,” in Didier, Évangile, 281–308.
James E. Davison, “Anomia and the Question of an Antinomian Polemic in Matthew,” JBL 104 (1985) 617–35.
Von Gemünden, Vegetationsmetaphorik, 141–51.
David Hill, “False Prophets and Charismatics: Structure and Interpretation in Matthew 7,15–23,” Bib 57 (1976) 327–48.
Paul Hoffmann, “Πάντες ἐργάται ἀδικίας: Redaktion und Tradition in Lk 13,22–30,” ZNW 58 (1967) 188–214.
Simon Légasse, “Les faux prophètes: Matth. 7,15–20,” Études franciscaines 18 (1968) 205–18.
Marguerat, Jugement, 183–203.
Michael Mees, “Ausserkanonische Parallelstellen zu den Gerichtsworten Mt 7,21–23; Lk 6,46; 13,26–28 und ihre Bedeutung für die Formung der Jesusworte,” VetChr 10 (1973) 79–102.
Paul Minear, “False Prophecy and Hypocrisy in the Gospel of Matthew,” in Joachim Gnilka, ed., Neues Testament und Kirche: Für Rudolf Schnackenburg (Freiburg: Herder, 1974) 76–93.
Giorgio Otranto, “Matteo 7,15–16a egli ψευδοπροφῆται nell’ esegesi patristica,” VetChr 6 (1969) 34–45.
Gerhard Schneider, “Christusbekenntnis und christliches Handeln,” in Rudolf Schnackenburg, Josef Ernst, and Joachim Wanke, eds., Die Kirche des Anfangs: Festschrift für Heinz Schürmann zum 65. Geburtstag (Leipzig: St.-Benno, 1977) 9–24.
Eduard Schweizer, “Matthäus 7,15–23,” in Matthäus, 126–31.
Manlio Simonetti, “Matteo 7,17–18 (= Luca 6,43) dagli Gnostici ad Agostino,” Aug 16 (1976) 271–90.

For additional literature see above, II A on the Sermon on the Mount (5:1–7:29).

15 “Beware of the false prophets who come to you in sheep’s clothing but within are rapacious wolves. 16/ You will recognize them by their fruit. Or does one gather grapes from thorn bushes or figs from thistle bushes?
17 Thus every good tree produces useful fruit,
but the bad tree produces evil fruit.
18 A good tree cannot produce evil fruit,
and a bad tree cannot produce useful fruit.
19 Every tree that does not produce useful fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire. 20/ Thus: You will recognize them by their fruit.
21 Not everyone who says to me, ‘Lord, Lord,’ will enter the kingdom of heaven but whoever does the will of my Father in heaven.
22 On that day many will say to me, ‘Lord, Lord, did we not prophesy in your name and cast out demons in your name and perform many mighty works in your name?’ 23/ And then I will confess to them: ‘I never knew you. Depart from me, you who do what is contrary to the law.’ ”
Analysis
Structure
The most important issue for our interpretation is the question of the relationship between the two subsections, vv. 15–20* and vv. 21–23*.1 Formally, they appear to be loosely connected. Verses 16–20* are a self-contained unit, while vv. 21–23* differ in both form and content.
Verse 15* has only a loose connection with the following composition. Prophets are not mentioned again until vv. 22–23*.
Verses 16–20* are tightly composed. Verse 16a* is repeated in v. 20* (inclusion). At the center is the saying about the tree in v. 17* with its negative variation in v. 18*, each in neat parallelism. Between the center and the frame are brief clauses: the rhetorical question of v. 16b* and the threat in v. 19* that every bad tree will be thrown into the fire. In vv. 16–20* we have a ring composition. The introductory v. 15* is not part of it.
The direct addresses in the second person plural that characterize vv. 15–16*, 20* disappear in vv. 21–23*. Verse 21* is an unexpected introduction of a theme, again with suggestions of parallelism. It is linked to vv. 16–20* and vv. 22–23* with “do” (ποιέω). It contains the transition to the eschatological perspective that previously had only been alluded to figuratively in v. 19*. It is emphasized in vv. 22–23*. Unlike vv. 16–20*, the future tenses, reinforced by “in that day,” are eschatological. The parenesis becomes prophecy; Jesus becomes the judge.
Thus neither in form nor in their time perspective are vv. 15–23* a unified pericope. Nevertheless, the catchwords that connect its various parts are noteworthy: “do/produce” (ποιέω, vv. 17–19*, 21–22*), “Lord” repeated (κύριε, vv. 21–22*), and especially “prophet, prophesy” (προφετευ-, vv. 15*, 22*). All of these links were created by the evangelist in order to relate vv. 22–23* to vv. 15–21*. Matthew has brought together disparate fragments and thus created a unified pericope. Its structure may be described as follows: (1) The introductory v. 15* names the situation (false prophets). It is followed by (2) a “rule for testing the spirits”2 in vv. 16–20* and (3) a principle for entering the kingdom of heaven in v. 21*. (4) Verses 22–23* return to the prophets, develop the principle of v. 21* using them as an example, and create a bracket with v. 15*.
Redaction and Sources
Matthew brings together two Q pieces from the Sermon on the Plain (Q 6:43–45, 46) with another Q piece. His redaction is correspondingly intensive.
a. Verse 15* is completely Matthean, formulated in part in biblical language.3
b. Verses 16–20*: The framework created by vv. 16a* and 20* is a radically changed reformulation of Q 6:44a. Verses 16b–18* correspond only in part to the Q pericope of the tree with the fruit and its application to a person’s speech (Q 6:43–45), which in the Sermon on the Plain followed the saying about the beam and the splinter. Since the final verse, Q 6:45, did not fit in the Matthean concept, it was omitted. In 12:33–35* Matthew will use the Q pericope again in more complete form. Most of the other changes also come from him. He is responsible for putting v. 16* (= Q 6:44) first. Now the section begins appropriately with the principle of Q 6:44a so that the readers can apply “thorns” and “thistles” immediately to the false prophets. He is probably also responsible for partly replacing the adjectives “good”/“bad” (καλός/ σαπρός) with the ethical opposites “good”/“evil” (ἀγαθός/πονηρός). It may be that Matthew replaced “thornbush” (βάτος) with “thistle bush” (τρίβολος) and doubled Q 6:43 (= vv. 17–18*) so that it became an antithetical parallelism.7 Other changes may also have come from him. The rest of the various designations of plants and fruits in 7:16b* = Q 6:44b are difficult to explain. Here we will probably have to assume variant traditions or different Q recensions.9 Verse 19* is a passage Matthew repeated from the preaching of John the Baptist (Matt 3:10*).
c. The Matthean thematic statement of v. 21* is the result of a redactional reformulation of Q 6:46.
d. It is difficult to be certain about vv. 22–23*, since Luke has also greatly changed the Q text. The agreement in wording with Q 13:25–27 is so minimal that the sequence of the sayings in Matt 7:13–14*, 22–23*; 8:11–12* that corresponds to Luke 13:22–29* is almost the only thing that makes it possible to attribute Luke 13:22–29* to Q. Linguistically there are few clear Mattheanisms. It may be that in v. 22* Matthew wanted to create a reminder of Jer 34:15* LXX. In v. 23* he definitely strengthened the reminiscence of Ps 6:9*.13 It is difficult to decide whether in v. 22* the Matthean version (prophesy, cast out demons, perform mighty deeds) or the Lukan version (eating, drinking, teaching) is earlier. Since the Matthean text clearly reflects a community situation,14 it is probably not original. The sum total of the evidence shows that Matthew has edited the section quite purposefully and thoroughly, as he seldom does elsewhere.
Origin
Three different traditional fragments lie behind the Matthean composition. In the early Christian reception they were still transmitted in part separately. It is difficult to say something about the origin of the first traditional unit, Q 6:43–45, because it is so general. In the case of the second unit, Q 6:46, the difficulty lies in its brevity. With the third unit, Q 13:25–27, the difficulty lies in reconstructing its wording.
Interpretation

In my judgment the intensive Matthean redaction is understandable only if the struggle with false prophets is an actual problem in his community. Who were these people?
Excursus: False Prophets
In the second half of the first century and in the second century the problem of the ambiguity of prophecy surfaced with some frequency. One finds evidence of the problem in 1 John (2:18–27*; 4:1–6*), the Gospel of Mark (9:38–40*; 13:5–6*, 21–23*), the Pastoral Epistles (Titus 1:10–16*, esp. 12*), the Lukan writings (Acts 20:29–30*), Revelation (2:20*), 2 Peter (2:1*), the Didache (11.3 = 12.5), the Shepherd of Hermas (Man. 11), the Pseudo-Clementine Homilies (2.6–12), the Acts of Thomas (79), and the Montanists. The ambiguity of the Spirit seems to be a problem in every charismatic movement, especially in the second and third generations. That makes it difficult to determine historically who our false prophets were. There is thus a great diversity in the palette of suggestions: Zealots, Pharisees,19 Essenes, strict Jewish Christians,21 Paulinists. Thus far the suggestion of Gerhard Barth, who sees in the false prophets Hellenistic antinomians, has won the greatest agreement.23
The text gives little precise information. I assume that v. 15* and vv. 22–23* refer to the same people. Then the false prophets are Christians, not Jews.24 They are miracle workers and exorcists. Matthew does not charge the false prophets with any particular false teaching, even though there may have been such a thing; he accuses them only of bad fruits and in v. 23* of “lawlessness” (ἀνομία). One might conclude from this that they advocated libertine or antinomian slogans, thus some form of popular Paulinism. One cannot prove this conclusion, however, for it is just as conceivable that they simply did not live up to the strict standards of Matthew’s interpretation of God’s will—that they were, in other words, “imperfect.” In any case, Matthew does not accuse them of teaching ἀνομία. Thus one cannot prove from 7:21–23* that Matthew was dealing with opponents who where antinomian in their teaching.26
The Matthean community itself was strongly influenced by prophecy, and in Q it also had at its disposal a tradition strongly influenced by prophecy (cf. 5:12*; 23:34*, 37*). The Didache and Matt 10:40–42* show that Christian communities were visited by itinerant prophets. The simplest interpretation of “they come to you” (v. 15*) is that it also refers to such visits. It may also be helpful to remember the “foreign exorcist” of Mark 9:38–40*, because Matthew omits this small Markan story and repeats in exactly opposite form its scope that all who are not against Jesus are for him (12:30*, almost immediately before his second version of the text of the tree and the fruits in 12:33–35*). One sees here a reserve toward the free charismatics to whom Mark was more open. Are the false prophets in some way “Markanists”?27
Finally, we learn from 24:9–12* that the false prophets who will lead many astray to lawlessness and a lack of love are a phenomenon of the last days.28 In my judgment it is probable that for Matthew his own present, according to 24:14* the time of the Gentile mission, is this end time.29 For him the experience of false prophecy and the conviction of living in the end time just before the judgment belong together.

■ 15* The warning against the false prophets begins abruptly. The community obviously knows of whom the text is speaking. With them there is a wide disparity between the external and the internal. The sheep’s pelt in which they hide themselves is probably a metaphor rather than the typical garment of a prophet.31 Since the peaceful and defenseless sheep are the classic opposite of the ravenous wolves, their disguise in sheep’s clothing means that they appear to be peaceful and defenseless. The general idea is probably that the “predatory” wolves, which according to widespread early Christian conviction are the false teachers,33 will destroy the community. Naturally, in view of Ezek 22:27* and Did. 11.6, it is tempting to think that they are greedy for money. However, nothing in the text suggests that the danger that threatens the community from these people consists only in their greed.

■ 16a* Matthew gives the community a rule according to which it can recognize these prophets who only appear harmless: one recognizes them by their fruits. The principle that a tree is recognized by its fruit is also rooted in the tradition.35 “You will recognize” (ἐπιγνώσεσθε) is meant as an aphorism, as an imperative, or as a future, but in any case not eschatologically. The community is to seek to discern the spirits here and now. “Fruit” is common everywhere, but especially in the OT, as a metaphor that can mean on the one hand the consequences of deeds,37 but on the other hand the deed itself (as people’s “fruit”). What is meant in our passage is not the consequences of the activity of the false prophets in the communities but their deeds. Speaking for this view are the understanding the readers bring with them from 3:8* and 10*, the stereotypical connection with the leading word “do” (ποιέω), “evil” (πονηρός), and “good” (ἀγαθός) in vv. 17* and 18*, as well as the Matthean understanding of the word καρπός in general (cf. esp. 21:41*, 43*). Interpreting the fruits as words—that is, the teaching of the false prophets—is “read into” our context from 12:33–35*, and on the basis of 7:21* and 23* this is an impossible interpretation. Thus the signs by which the false prophets will be recognized are their works.40

■ 16b–18* A rhetorical question from Q makes the criterion obvious: one does not gather grapes and figs from thorn- and thistle bushes (which are widespread and sometimes tall in Israel). Again the opposites are traditional and preformed.42 In the context the question has the rhetorical function of depreciating the false prophets by putting them alongside thorns and thistles. In addition it prepares the way for v. 17* (“so/thus”: οὕτως). Matthew doubled the following images of good and the “bad/spoiled” tree in order to heighten the rhetorical effect. While it is a simple figure of speech in the Sayings Source, the Matthean text suggests a metaphorical understanding. “Good” and “evil” are clearly ethically colored expressions,44 so that speaking of “evil” fruit captures one’s attention and immediately makes one think of people’s deeds.

■ 19–20* In v. 19* the metaphor becomes eschatological. The trees that do not bear good fruit are burned. Here the readers remember the preaching of John the Baptist, who had announced the same thing (3:10*), and they notice that Jesus is speaking of the final annihilating judgment. Once again Jesus’ proclamation of judgment and that of John the Baptist are the same.46 With one more call to test the wolves in sheep’s clothing by their works the evangelist rounds off the first part of the text.

■ 21* Verse 21* marks a new beginning. The statement that all people will be judged on the basis of their works (v. 19*) leads to a polemical principle: Not everyone who says, “Lord, Lord” will enter the kingdom of heaven. Since this principle applies not only to false prophets, in v. 21* the perspective is broadened.47 In particular, however, attention is now focused directly on the last judgment. Jesus speaks here as the judge of the world. The “Lord, Lord” is especially expressive and imploring. In Matthew “Lord” is the way the disciples, not outsiders, address Jesus, but especially as the World Judge-Son of Man. Thus Matthew is thinking of the community: not all of its members will enter the kingdom of heaven. Although addressing the World Judge as “Lord” is theologically correct, nothing will be decided only on the basis of addressing Jesus correctly. Of course, Matthew is not criticizing the disciples for calling Jesus “Lord.” However, he does polemicize sharply against the thesis that entering the kingdom of heaven is “simply a matter of faith” rather than along with faith also a matter of “doing.” Thus he criticizes every form of faith “alone” without works.50 As a redactional logion about “entering the kingdom of heaven,” v. 21* reminds the reader of 5:20*, where the community is confronted with the demand for better righteousness. Thus that is what Matthew is thinking of when he speaks of “doing the will of my Father” as a condition of salvation.
Is that works-righteousness? The question is more urgent than it was at 5:20*, because here it becomes clear that there is no certainty of salvation for the community. Although for Matthew the Sermon on the Mount as a whole is imperative and not a promise of salvation, he is aware of grace. It is suggested in our verse with the word “Father.” It is the Father of the World Judge to whom the community may say “our Father” (6:9*). Doing his will is not only something about which they must make an effort; it is also something for which they are permitted to pray (6:10*). Verse 21* also points back to the Lord’s Prayer. For Matthew here knowing about the Father’s will is a stimulus and help for doing, but it does not involve the certainty that one will enter the kingdom of heaven.

■ 22–23* The false prophets, who at the judgment will be burned like unfruitful trees, are a frightening, negative example designed to awaken the community from its slumber, much as later will be the case with the Pharisees and scribes, for whom there is also no relationship between their inner and outer lives.51 Verses 22–23* return to these false prophets. In retrospect it becomes significant that in vv. 15–20* Matthew had not spoken of an excommunication of the false prophets (cf. 7:1*). That corresponds to his understanding of the church. The community is not to anticipate the divine judgment and is not itself to separate weeds and wheat (13:36–43*; cf. 22:11–14*). Therefore Matthew restricts himself to giving his community a rule for recognizing false prophets, and he calls them to stay on the way of righteousness. The World Judge will himself carry out the judgment on the false prophets,52 and precisely this is what vv. 22–23* now portray. On that great judgment day “many”—the word reminds one of the broad way of 7:13*—will plead that they have prophesied in Jesus’ name.53 Many have performed miracles in Jesus’ name. We are familiar with the connection between prophecy and miracles not only from Jewish tradition; everywhere in early Christianity miracles are in the service of the proclamation and are signs of the arrival of the kingdom of God. Matthew, who understands the disciples in terms of the OT prophets (5:12*; 23:34*) and for whom miracles are part of the proclamation (10:1*, 7–8*; 11:20–24*; 17:19–20*), is not rejecting prophecy and miracles.55 The World Judge simply charges the charismatics with not satisfying the criterion of works. With the solemn words of Ps 6:9* he testifies to them that they do not belong to him. (“Testify/confess” [ὁμολογέω] comes from the language of the court and emphasizes the irrevocability of the testimony.) There is no rabbinic ban formula behind the expression “I never knew you.” Instead the World Judge denies fellowship with these charismatics57 and insists that he never chose them. Then in the last judgment only those will be saved with whom the Son of Man wants to have fellowship (10:32–33*; 25:11*), and it will be based on their works (cf. 25:31–46*).
Matthew designates the criterion that will be decisive in the judgment as “lawlessness” (ἀνομία). Since according to Jewish and Christian belief lawlessness will increase in the end time and because the false (pseudo-) prophets belong to the end time (24:10–12*), it may well be that the readers of the Gospel of Matthew thought that they themselves were living in the end time.60 Ἀνομία is a central word in the Bible. It frequently corresponds to Heb. עָוֹן, and it is almost identical with “unrighteousness” (ἀδικία). One must understand lawlessness here on the basis of Matthew’s understanding of the law. “Law” is the OT will of God that Jesus has established by deed and word. That is, it is the valid OT law that reaches its peak in the love command. Therefore in 24:12* Matthew interprets the fullness of lawlessness as love grown cold. At the same time he makes clear that God’s will is the OT will of God. Therefore the World Judge speaks with the words of Ps 6:9*, just as in the parallel text of Matt 13:41* he speaks with the words of Zeph 1:3*. At the same time the biblical word makes the verdict of the World Judge ultimately binding. A sentence of death is pronounced here on the false prophets as a warning to the community, which itself is summoned to practice the Torah as taught by Jesus.61 With this warning the brief excursus on the false prophets returns to the main theme that determines the entire direction of the Sermon on the Mount. It is a warning to the community, in view of the perspective of the judgment of the world, against going on the wrong way.
Summary

The criterion by which the truth of the prophets or the authenticity of charismatics will be decided in the judgment is their praxis. Not only the thoroughgoing redaction but also, indeed, especially v. 21*, which maintains that as the basic criterion, show how important this is for Matthew. For Christian faith he requires practical proof. God alone, not the person or the community, decides about faith’s validity.
Matthew only appears to be unique in early Christianity with this criterion. Time and again the history of interpretation has wrestled with the relationship between Matt 7:21–23* and 1 Cor 12:3*: “No one can say ‘Jesus is Lord’ except by the Holy Spirit.” In my judgment Paul is not establishing a criterion here for authentic pneumatics; instead, he wants to emphasize against the exclusiveness of the Corinthian pneumatics that everyone who confesses Jesus as Lord—and that is something every Corinthian Christian does—has the Holy Spirit. The actual Pauline criterion appears in 1 Corinthians 13: only love remains. Even the confession to the Jesus who has come in the flesh in 1 John 4:2* is only an alternative to Matt 7:21–23* when one separates the sections against the heretics from the texts about love (cf., e.g., 1 John 3:10*). Of course, Matthew stands in closest proximity to the Didache, which originated in his area of influence. Those who do not do the truth they teach are false prophets (Did. 11.10). Yet already in the Didache there are more tangible criteria. An itinerant prophet who stays more than two days in the community or asks for money is a false prophet (Did. 11.5). A prophet who does not go to church, who gossips too much, and who charges money for his prophecy is a false prophet (Hermas Man. 11.12–13). A true prophet is the one whose prophecy comes true (Ps.-Clem. Hom. 2.10) or the one whose prophecy agrees with that of James, the brother of the Lord (Ps.-Clem. Hom. 11.35). The idea that the criterion is true doctrine begins to become the dominant idea.
History of Interpretation

There are problems in the Matthean criterion of the “fruits.” It would appear on the surface that we have here an easy criterion of discrimination that everyone can apply, not only theologians and officials authorized to administer true doctrine. But the history of interpretation reveals that serious problems are hidden behind the “easy” criterion. Surprisingly, the text is one of the most frequently cited texts from the Sermon on the Mount. It was used so often because, among other reasons, it could be used by everybody and against everybody. In other words, the history of interpretation shows that the “simple” Matthean criterion failed as a criterion of discrimination.
a. The general view is that the Matthean statements about the false prophets are also to be applied to teachers and preachers. Thus the text refers to the heretics. But to which heretics? The palette of possibilities reaches from the Valentinians, Marcionites, Manicheans,65 through Lutherans, Calvinists, Catholics,67 Anabaptists, to the pastors with a “wolf’s heart” who perform their office not out of love to the people “but for the sake of earning a living.” They “recite to the people sermons that have been written out and memorized, baptize children, and distribute the sacrament” and proclaim grace to everybody without distinction.69 No one believes that he is a false prophet. Augustine describes the problem sharply. It is a matter of distinguishing between a sheep’s pelt and fruits: “For many regard as fruits various things that belong to sheep’s clothing.” One person’s sheep’s clothing—that is, the malevolent disguises of rapacious wolves—is another person’s fruit of faith. The list of items included in the sheep’s clothing is indeed impressive: abstinence, humility, simplicity, mercy, but also biblical words, the will to engage in reformation,72 Luther’s authority, and the correct installation in office by the civil authorities. So what is a mask, and what is the fruit of the gospel? Luther thinks that love is the fruit of the gospel; everything else even an ass could do.74 In his earlier writings he claims that the churches of the Reformation excel over all others by building alone on love and the word of God, while the papists rely on power. However, this principle could not be maintained for long.
Thus it is not surprising that, although not yet with Luther and Zwingli, but certainly with Calvin and the post-Reformation Protestant interpretation, the fruit was interpreted primarily in terms of doctrine. Not until the Enlightenment and Pietism was there a return to the interpretation of the fruits as works that was the prevailing interpretation in the ancient church and Catholicism.77 In that day the difference was regarded as typically confessional, and the Catholics rightly charged that to interpret the fruit as referring to doctrine was “to prove doctrine by doctrine.” One must say in all honesty, however, that even where the fruit was not interpreted in terms of doctrine the distinction between true and false prophecy was made according to the criterion of orthodoxy. The Matthean criterion consistently proved to be incapable of being objectified and to be deeply ambiguous. Here the history of interpretation leads to critical questions to Matthew himself.
b. It is necessary to raise questions at still another point. The history of interpretation dealt not only with the fruit but, perhaps even more intensely, with the trees. It seemed to many interpreters that something was wrong with the image of the tree. A fig tree can, of course, only produce figs, a vine can produce only grapes, and a thornbush can produce neither of them. Hence the issue is not the fruit at all but the tree that determines what the fruit will be. Thus the Gnostics interpreted the good and the rotten tree dualistically to refer to the person’s divine or material nature given by God. For the Gospel of Truth the “fruit” permits one to smell the Father’s pleasant odor that is at work in his children. From the contrast between the two trees Marcion, and after him Mani, concluded that there were two opposing gods that created them.81 The Manicheans concurred with the Gnostic interpretation. By contrast, the church’s interpretation struggled to reconcile Matt 7:16–20* with freedom of the will.83 Does the text not mean that a good person of necessity must produce good fruit automatically and that a bad person can never become good? The image of the tree appears to point in this direction. Paul’s conversion and David’s adultery were frequently used to contradict this thesis. The problem was finally solved with the explanation that to the extent that people have “good intentions” (bona voluntas) they are good trees.
Behind this difficulty with the image there is discomfort about the substance. The Matthean criterion of praxis appears to ignore the Christian presupposition of deeds (namely, grace), and it therefore has been regarded as theologically deficient. Hans Weder asks: “Can my works make God unnecessary? Can they negate his creation of my person?” He immediately answers: “No.” God is not the judging God; he is the giving God, whose love means that I am more than my deeds. “If you truly think of God as Father, then you can only think of him as one who knows that you are not your misdeeds just as you are not your deeds.”87 From this perspective it becomes understandable that Luther interprets the good tree as faith from which then all good works come, as it were, by themselves.
All of these questions call attention to a genuine and deep problem that, especially for Protestants, is connected with the Matthean theology of fruit and judgment. But if the Matthean text, as with Luther or again with Weder, is taken over into the Reformation’s doctrine of justification, and if the works are understood in the Pauline sense as the fruit of the justifying faith given by God, Catholics of necessity must suspect that the Reformation is but a new version of old heresies. Or from the other side, those who have problems with our text because of their Reformation theology may well wonder whether with their interpretation the ancient Gnostics and Manicheans did not sense something very important.
Meaning for Today

From the history of the influence of our text we need to address two questions to it:
1. Are all ethical criteria for the truth of Christian faith eventually ambiguous and thus useless?
2. Does emphasizing ethical criteria lead in the final analysis to the abolition of God’s grace?
Both are theologically fundamental questions, and they cannot simply be disposed of with a few sentences.
On the first question I would like, based on the text, to remind the reader that the ethical criterion is not simply a general criterion; it is the standard given by Jesus’ commandments (28:20*). This rule of measurement is a clear point of orientation for all Christians. However, “point of orientation” does not mean that the community, anticipating God’s judgment, now uses the standard of the fruit to make judgments that it is not permitted to make (cf. 7:1–5*). Thus what 7:15–23* offers is only a criterion of orientation, not a criterion of judgment. In particular, however, the context of 7:13–14* and 7:24–27* shows that the criterion of the fruit is primarily a guide for one’s own behavior. Thus the issue is not that with its criterion the community prematurely separates weeds from wheat but that the righteousness of the true disciples of Jesus is greater than that of the false prophets. The criterion of works is primarily a criterion of behavior, not a criterion of judgment. This is the only way to maintain the reality that Christian faith is praxis itself and not an ethical theory that permits us to make ecclesiastical or personal judgments about what is true practice.
On the second question we need to remember what for Matthew points to the primacy of grace: God’s will is the Father’s will. Jesus, who proclaims this will, is with his church until the end of the world. The proclamation of God’s will is embedded in a story of God with Jesus and thus with the community. Therefore, doing the will of God does not eliminate the confession of Jesus as Lord; it presupposes it. To be sure, it is interpreted in a special way. For Matthew it is impossible to separate person and works—the tree is not burned because it is rotten but because it produces bad fruit. In good Jewish terms, human freedom is not eliminated by God’s grace; it is led onto the right way. Thus God’s grace does not consist simply of helping the desperate and drowning person out of the water (cf. 14:28–31*) but also in a deeper sense of opening up the way on which the person can go. That is what the Sermon on the Mount is about. We must face the question whether Matthew does not take God’s grace seriously precisely by taking seriously the person called by God to act.
3.3 Conclusion: Two Builders (7:24–27*)
Literature
Jülicher, Gleichnisreden 2.259–68.
Marguerat, Jugement, 203–11.

For additional literature see above, II A on the Sermon on the Mount (5:1–7:29).

24 “Everyone then who hears and does these my words,
will be like a prudent man
who built his house on the rock.
25 And the rain fell,
and the streams came,
and the wind blew,
and they fell against that house,
and it did not collapse,
because it was founded on the rock.
26 And everyone who hears these my words and does not do them
will be like a foolish man
who built his house on the sand.
27 And the rain fell,
and the streams came,
and the wind blew,
and they beat against that house,
and it collapsed,
and its fall was great.”
Analysis
Structure
The opening “Everyone” (πᾶς, vv. 24*, 26*; cf. v. 21*, οὐ πᾶς) and the verb “does” (ποιέω) connect this text to the preceding material. Matthew composes the text symmetrically; the two halves are almost identical in their wording. The double parable is told artistically. After the title-like exposition the action begins with brief verbal clauses. Matthew mentions a threefold danger: rain, streams of water, and wind. The assault of the elements on the house, the result, and a conclusion are told with equal brevity. Only the final parts of vv. 25* and 27* are not parallel. These asymmetrical sentences contain the decisive material.
Redaction and Source
The double parable comes from Q. It is difficult to say how much Matthew strengthened the parallelism of the two halves of the parable or how much Luke in 6:47–49* has changed a previously existing Semitic parallelism.1 Redactional are: the insertion of “these” behind “words” (vv. 24*, 26*), the connecting “therefore” (v. 24*), the general relative clause with “who” (v. 24*), probably the characterization of the two builders as “prudent” and “foolish,” and the future formulation “will be likened” (ὁμοιωθήσεται). Lukan contributions may be: “who comes to me,” “I will show,” “he dug,” “laid a foundation” (cf. Luke 14:29*), “because … built” (= διά with an infinitive), “to be able” (ἰσχύω), and “shake.” However, there are still a number of unusual formulations in the Lukan text. Thus it is possible, but not provable, that Luke himself basically changed the Q text.
The differences between the two texts are interesting from local and social-historical perspectives. The text that comes to us by way of Matthew places the emphasis on the ground beneath the house. The floods that rush through Palestinian wadis after sudden downpours can easily wash away the sandy ground. The houses can be destroyed by cloudbursts and rain; the thought here is probably of mud houses. The Lukan text, on the other hand, speaks of the flooding (πλήμμυρα) of a river. A house with a good foundation that reaches down to bedrock withstands the flood. Since wind and rain are not mentioned as destructive powers, one most naturally thinks of a stone house over a cellar. Thus Luke may be writing about a city in a flood. By contrast, the Matthean text is not only linguistically closer to a Semitic narrative style,5 it is also in its imagery closer to the rural, Palestinian milieu.
Origin
The double parable is a unit and cannot be further deconstructed. It could come from Jesus. What is noteworthy in contrast to similar Jewish texts is that the issue here is not the study and the praxis of the Torah but hearing and doing the words of Jesus.8 The catastrophe of the storm is graphically described. In the original parable the issue was probably already not simply passing a test but survival in the catastrophe of the last judgment. Correspondingly, we have here a parable about a one-time event rather than a simile, as one has in most Jewish parallel texts. The original parable of Jesus is in substance quite close to the Jesus saying of Q 12:8–9, which is also formulated positively and negatively: whoever confesses me (= hears and does my words), the Son of Man will also confess before the angels of God (= his “building” will endure in the judgment).
Interpretation

■ 24–27* As the Sayings Source had already done with the Sermon on the Plain, Matthew concludes his Sermon on the Mount with a double parable. In a way similar to the ending of the Holiness Code (Lev 26), Deuteronomy (30:15–20*), the final redaction of the Book of Enoch (1 Enoch 108), and the Assumption of Moses (12.10–13), the readers are confronted once again with the great choice. As in the community discourse (Matt 18:23–35*) and in the eschatological discourse (24:45–25:46*), it is an eschatological parable that confronts the readers with the two possibilities. Verse 24* (and v. 26*) states what the parable is about: the one who hears Jesus’ words and does (not do) them. In the Matthean context “do” (ποιέω) has been a key word since 7:12* and is therefore given special emphasis in comparison with hearing. By adding “these” (τούτους) the evangelist makes clear that the reference is to the Sermon on the Mount.
The parable’s imagery speaks of two builders. The picture of the house along with the righteous person’s “enduring” or “survival” is an established motif from the wisdom tradition. “Prudent/wise” (φρόνιμος) corresponds to Heb. חָכָם. In the biblical wisdom tradition it has always had a theological dimension: the one who thinks in terms of God is “intelligent.” The intelligent man builds his house on solid rock, perhaps on the summit of a hill, while the foolish man builds his on sandy ground, perhaps on the slope. In our parable, however, the traditional wisdom motifs are used in an eschatological sense: the preceding context (vv. 20–23*) has already spoken about the last judgment. Instead of the “is like” given in Q, Matthew has the future “will be likened.” As in 25:1*, he is thinking of the last judgment in which the “likeness” envisioned by the parables will be seen.12 The parable’s form also suggests as much. It speaks not of a this-worldly deed-consequence connection that one repeatedly experiences but of one-time events. Therefore the evangelist tells a story about the success of the man who built his house on the rock and of the catastrophe of the other man whose dangerous construction led to a gigantic collapse. The image of the storm with cloudbursts, suddenly rushing streams through usually dry valleys, and strong winds also suggests judgment to the hearers.14 The survival of the one who built on the rock and the catastrophe for the one who built on sand will become clear in the last judgment that will reveal the truth of the parable.
The end of v. 27* alludes to the catastrophe: “Its fall was great.” Instead of the explanation of vv. 25–26* (“because it was founded on the rock”), the narrator here emphasizes the catastrophic result. The hearers notice this deviation from the parallelism of the two parts of the parable. The emphasis lies on the concluding warning.
History of Interpretation
In the church’s exegesis the parable’s reference to the last judgment was often minimized or even ignored. The storm was interpreted as referring to this-worldly experiences such as superstition, rumors, temptations of the flesh,16 flattery, the power of the devil, or demonic thoughts.18 It was also easier to interpret the text in terms of the present when the rock was interpreted as Christ (cf. 1 Cor 10:4*).19 Then the text was a call to hold fast to the “the rocky foundation of the eternal Word of God” (= Christ). The reformers in particular favored this interpretation.21 In the Reformation this text was also drawn into the tumult of the antithesis between faith and works: in contrast to building on one’s own piety and one’s own works, one can have certainty only by building solidly on the foundation, Christ. The important thing then is the hearing of the word—that is, the foundation that is provided—or trusting God. What the human being does is of secondary importance. The text is distorted in this way in Protestant exegesis down to the present day.24 Catholic exegesis objected to relating this text, of all texts, to faith without works where it clearly speaks of the “faith made firm by good works” (“fides bonis operibus solidata”). The objection is justified. “Hearing and doing” may not be separated in this parable. Indeed, right hearing leads to doing. It is not the case that hearing is compared with the foundation that is laid and doing with building on the rock. Instead, both of them, hearing and doing, correspond to building on the rock. Conversely, only hearing, without doing, corresponds to building on sand.
Summary

The text links up with 5:19*. Matt 5:17–20* had maintained that Jesus fulfilled God’s law and had summoned the community to the better righteousness. Everything depends on this praxis. That does not mean that christology is reduced to ethics, because Jesus is the one who in his mission fulfills law and prophets and who makes it possible for the community to go the way of righteousness. “My words” clearly maintains this christological basis (cf. 28:20*). But Christ does not make it possible to retreat. He is not someone who if necessary also saves without works, even if it is “as through fire” (1 Cor 3:15*). Instead, he makes it possible for those to enter life who do righteousness; he helps them, but only them. Christ gives his grace to the one who does the word. Every “right-attitude” ethic that is not prepared to be measured by its fruits will be frustrated at this conclusion of the Sermon on the Mount. Praxis alone is what matters. It is the “necessary condition … for salvation.”27 That is true for the community for which this parable elevates the principle of 7:21* to the level of an urgent appeal: being a Christian means the praxis of Jesus’ commands. In this praxis there is the experience of grace and prayer. That is the proclamation of the Sermon on the Mount from the Beatitudes to its conclusion. Whether one remains or falls in the judgment depends on this praxis.
3.4 Conclusion of the Sermon on the Mount (7:28–29*)

28 And it happened, when Jesus had concluded these words, the crowds were astonished at his teaching, 29/ for he taught them as one who has authority and not as their scribes.
Analysis
Structure
As part of the ring-like composition around the Sermon on the Mount, the conclusion points back to 5:1–2* (“crowds,” “teaching”) as well as to 4:23*, 25*. At the same time it contains an important catchword, “authority” (ἐξουσία), that will play a significant role in the following main section (cf. 9:6*, 8*; 10:1*). Verse 28a* shows the first occurrence of a conclusion that, with minor variations,2 will appear at the end of all the discourses (11:1*; 13:53*; 19:1*; 26:1*). In this way the evangelist separates the five major discourses of his Gospel from other discourses of Jesus. This conclusion differs from other conclusions of the discourses by lingering with the discourse itself instead of returning immediately to the story of Jesus and its action. Verse 28a* emphasizes the basic significance of the Sermon on the Mount.3 Only in the next verse, 8:1*, which parallel to 5:1* mentions the descent from the mountain, is there a transition to the next section of the story of Jesus.
Sources
Matthew copies Mark 1:22* word for word; the Sermon on the Mount appears where the healing in the synagogue takes place (Mark 1:23–28*).4 Luke 7:1a* shows that it is likely that a similar conclusion also appeared here in the Sayings Source. However, we can no longer determine how much Matthew followed Q, since Luke 7:1a* is completely Lukan.5 This uncertainty is regrettable, for the question where Matthew got the inspiration for the formulaic conclusion of his discourses is of great importance. Did he follow the Q text relatively faithfully?6 If so, one can build no theological castles on 7:28a*. Or is he influenced by OT formulations? One thinks of such texts as Deut 31:1*, 24*; 32:45–46*, but also of Num 16:31* or Jer 33:8* LXX. Does he intentionally want to call attention to Deuteronomy in an effort to present the Sermon on the Mount as a new Law of Moses and his book as a new Pentateuch?8 We will have to be careful. There are no literal agreements, even though it would have been easy to create them. Only “to go up the mountain” (5:1*) and “to come down from the mountain” (8:1*) are designed to recall Exodus 19 and 34. Then it is perhaps (!) no accident that Matthew emphatically and repeatedly (7:24*, 26*, 28*) speaks of “these words” of Jesus. That is what the Decalogue was called in Exod 20:1*. Had he wanted to recall the conclusion of Deuteronomy, however, he would have had to come up with a clearer statement, especially since Moses’ situation before his death corresponds to that of Jesus at most in 26:1*.
Interpretation

Matthew brings Jesus’ discourse to a close. More clearly than in 5:1* he emphasizes that the crowds also heard the Sermon on the Mount. It is a disciples discourse in the sense that the lives of the disciples are to shine in the world (5:16*) as missionary witnesses and are to confront the nations with the commandments that are also valid for them (cf. 28:20*). The crowds are addressed as potential disciples. The Sermon on the Mount is not instruction for Christians after they have heard the preaching of grace; it is at one and the same time missionary preaching and Jesus’ saving command. The people are astonished, because Jesus teaches with ἐξουσία. This “power” is seen first in his teaching. It will be seen later in his deeds, and in 10:1* it will be transferred to the disciples. Based on 28:18* it is the anticipation of the universal authority that will be given to the one who is exalted over heaven and earth. Thus for the believer something of the glory and power of the heavenly Lord shines in the Sermon on the Mount. Jesus’ ἐξουσία makes him different from the Jewish scribes. Matthew states here himself what we said earlier about the interpretation of the antitheses formulas: Jesus speaks in his own name. He does not hide his authority behind that of Moses nor does he legitimate it by appealing to tradition. Therefore, the church’s interpretation has correctly called attention to the sovereign “but I say to you” of the antitheses and to the christological tenet of the “fulfillment” of the law and prophets.10 With the possessive pronoun “their” Matthew indicates that the separation between the Jesus community and Judaism has already taken place. The Jewish scribes are on the “other” side. The people who are astonished stand in the middle between “their” scribes and Jesus.

Summary: The Basic Message of the Sermon on the Mount
Literature

See above, II A on the Sermon on the Mount (5:1–7:29).

The Sermon on the Mount is the fundamental and programmatic portrayal of the proclamation of Jesus, the teacher, Israel’s Messiah. It is thus the “words” that will be decisive in determining whether one stands in the judgment of the Son of Man, Jesus. That is why Matthew put it at the beginning of his Gospel. A great arc reaches from its conclusion (7:13–27*) to the final discourse about the judgment of the Son of Man (chaps. 24–25). At the same time, as “gospel” (εὐαγγέλιον) it is the content of the missionary preaching that the disciples someday will have to carry to all the nations (28:19–20*). For Matthew it is the most basic of the five discourses, the only one that he explicitly called “gospel of the kingdom.” In the following comments I summarize a few of its main declarations.
1. The goal of the Sermon on the Mount is Christian praxis. A Christian is anyone who acts according to Jesus’ commandments. Therefore Matthew emphasizes the unity of teaching (or hearing) and doing (5:19*; 7:21–23*, 24–27*). Thus the Sermon on the Mount is not teaching in the philosophical sense;1 it is “commandment of Jesus,” fulfilled law (5:17*). We must pose, therefore, not the isolated question about the true “understanding” of the Sermon on the Mount but only the more comprehensive question about the true praxis of the Sermon on the Mount.2
From time to time in the modern history of interpretation the question of the practicability of the Sermon on the Mount is raised.
For Matthew, as for the entire church until well after the Reformation, it was clear that the Sermon on the Mount is practicable. It not only must be done; it also can be done. To only a very small degree did Matthew in his redaction make the Sermon on the Mount “practicable” by adapting Jesus’ “ideal” and “absolute” demands to reality. It is true that there are such isolated accommodations (e.g., [pre-Matthean?] in 5:32*, 42*), but they appear alongside redactional additions such as 5:25–26*, 29–30* that underscore the radical nature of the demands all the more. Neither Matthew nor the community before him understood practicability in a way that established the “minimum” or the “more” (5:20*) of Jesus’ demands that must be kept in the community. Jesus’ commands in the Sermon on the Mount were not interpreted as Christian halakah.
2. The gospel of the deed is an expression of grace. The Sermon on the Mount is demand, “imperative.” Even the Beatitudes are a proclamation of grace that precedes the demands. For Matthew grace happens in the proclamation of Jesus’ demands, and it does so in a twofold way. First, the Sermon on the Mount is embedded in the story of God’s dealings with Jesus. Those who forget that the Sermon on the Mount comes only after Matthew 1–4 and in Matthew’s understanding cannot come earlier have misunderstood it. The Sermon on the Mount is Jesus’ preaching. The one who speaks in it is Jesus, Immanuel and Son of God, the one through whom God guarantees the truth of his claim and in whose form he accompanies his community of disciples. An interpretation that is not based on christology but wants to be true, plausible, or “rational” in and of itself is in Matthew’s sense a misunderstanding. Second, in its center (6:9–13*) the Sermon on the Mount wants to bring the acting person to prayer to the Father. An interpretation that overlooks the reality that in the Sermon on the Mount praxis is at its core prayer misunderstands the evangelist.4 Finally, the Sermon on the Mount does not separate the person into a dichotomy of hearing person and acting person (cf. 5:14–16; 7:21*, 24*, 26*). It is precisely as one who acts that a person stands under God’s grace by receiving from the heavenly Father something to do as a task.
3. The Sermon on the Mount combines the central love command with other exemplary demands of Jesus. Matthew has elaborated the love command as the central command by bracketing the other antitheses with the first and last antitheses and by gathering all of the main section of the Sermon on the Mount into the golden rule. The love of enemies is the essence and the summit of the “righteousness” God requires and of life in God-like “perfection.” For Matthew, however, the will of God is not reduced to love; the other commandments appear along with it. Matthew insists on the fruits (plural, 7:16*, 18*, 20*). Therefore it is not enough that the person does something out of love. The question is what the person does out of love.
For Matthew, the individual commands of Jesus and of the Bible, including every iota and stroke, are valid commands of God. But they are not laws that prescribe in detail what a Christian is to do in every situation. They are not sentences of law but exemplary requirements that illustrate how and how radically God demands obedience. A part of exemplarity is always the freedom to create new examples. Thus for Matthew there is neither an unequivocal definition of Christian action nor freedom in the sense of “love and do what you want” (“dilige et fac quod vis”). Christian living is best compared to a way whose goal is perfection (5:20*, 48*) and whose direction and radical nature is clearly marked by the individual commandments as if they were rays of light shining from the goal. The Sermon on the Mount does not define how the exact way is to be followed specifically in the situation of every community and of every church member and especially how far along this way everyone is to come. It merely says: as far as possible; at any rate, farther than the scribes and Pharisees (5:20*).
4. The Sermon on the Mount is an ethic for disciples. It presupposes the calling of the disciples (4:18–22*). Jesus teaches (5:1–2*) the disciples. The better righteousness of the Sermon on the Mount is the distinguishing attribute of the disciples that sets them apart from the Pharisees and scribes (5:20*). Individual demands presuppose the preaching of Christ (5:10–12*) or the existence of the community of disciples (5:13–16*, 20*, 31–32*; 6:7–8*, 14–15*; 7:15–20*). The praxis of the Sermon on the Mount helps people praise the Father in heaven (5:16*). Thus not only does the word of proclamation lead to deeds (28:20*), deeds in turn lead to proclamation. However, that means that for Matthew an ethic for disciples is not the special ethic of a circle of followers of Jesus living for themselves. It is rather the case that outsiders can appreciate and experience the ethic for disciples in the Sermon on the Mount as “good” and can therefore find it “attractive” (cf. 5:16*).
5. Through the preaching of the disciples the Sermon on the Mount is valid for the whole world. The multitudes as well as the disciples are addressed in the Sermon on the Mount (4:25–26*; 7:28–29*). In the proclamation in word and deed (5:16*) “all nations” (28:19*) are confronted with it. Many of Jesus’ demands clearly point beyond the boundaries of the community (cf. 5:25–26*, 39–41*, 44–45*; 6:24*; 7:1–2*). Because of the golden rule (7:12*) the Sermon on the Mount can become the content of missionary preaching. It points hermeneutically to the potential rationality of the central commandment to love one’s enemies, and in a theology of missions it points to its universal validity. As ethics for the community the Sermon on the Mount is at the same time God’s will for the whole world to which it is proclaimed (28:19–20*).
6. The Sermon on the Mount offers instruction in fulfilling the law and prophets. The Matthean Jesus appeals programmatically to the OT that he himself with his deeds and his proclamation “fulfills” as a permanently valid word of God (5:17*). Thus the OT remains the basis (7:12*; cf. 22:40*) of the will of God, and through Jesus’ proclamation of the will of God it is definitively validated and deepened, intensified and provided with a clear center. In the situation where the church and Israel’s synagogue have already gone separate ways this programmatic appeal back to the law and prophets is at the same time an implied no to that Israel for which Jesus is not the key to the Bible—the Israel that under the leadership of the Pharisees and scribes is entangled in half measures and hypocrisy on the road to righteousness. For the Matthean community, which as part of Israel must redefine its identity between the synagogue and the nations, Jesus’ unequivocal yes to the unabridged will of God and thus to Israel’s Torah is a clear confirmation of its Jewish identity, even if it is outside the synagogues influenced by the Pharisees.
7. The Sermon on the Mount states the requirements for entry into the kingdom of heaven. The view of the kingdom of heaven surrounds the Sermon on the Mount like brackets (5:3*, 10*; 7:21*). Matt 4:17* and 4:23* suggest that it is the “gospel of the kingdom.” The kingdom is obviously a future reality. If the community walks on the way of righteousness, it will enter it (5:20*). In the sermon’s center stands the petition of the Lord’s Prayer for its coming. For Matthew, the disciples’ praxis is not an “ethical” sign of the new world that is already dawning,8 but neither is it merely an “interim ethic,” understood as the special ethos of the last, brief time before the end. Rather, the Sermon on the Mount is the pure, undisguised expression of God’s will as it corresponds to the law and prophets—that is, as it had always been. In this sense it states the conditions for entering the kingdom of God.10 The special situation of the Christian community is that God, through his Son Jesus, is “with” the community and accompanies it, that is, God has given to the church an example, a teacher, and a helper. Through this Son a community of brothers and sisters has arisen that practices the will of the Father. Therefore Matthew, who tells the story of this Jesus, is far removed from any so-called works-righteousness.
One sees here different accents between Matthew and Jesus’ proclamation. The hidden presence of the kingdom of God is more strongly emphasized in the latter. Jesus understood his demands as an ethic of contrast, as a symbolic realization of the dawning kingdom of God in the midst of the old world. For Matthew the community is only moving toward the kingdom of heaven. The continuity with law and prophets was not programmatically developed by Jesus as it is in Matt 5:17–19* and 7:12*, even if it was obvious to him that he was God’s envoy to his people. The Matthean community, looking back to Easter, naturally emphasizes the priority of grace differently than Jesus himself does.
On the whole, however, what is significant for me is not the newness of the Matthean design but the continuity it maintains. To a great degree Matthew preserves the basic elements of Jesus’ proclamation, the unity of Jesus’ words and deeds, the connection between his proclamation and his message, the radical nature of his demands, and even Jesus’ language. Correspondingly, in the Sermon on the Mount we can reckon with a presumably high portion of authentic sayings of Jesus.
The differences are in large part new accents made necessary by the changed kerygmatic and historical situation. Jesus’ relationship to the kingdom that was dawning in his activity had to be reinterpreted after Easter. The more intense parenesis reflects the situation of the community, which after some fifty years of the Christian preaching of grace obviously is struggling with diminishing obedience and little faith. And it was necessary, both internally and externally, to emphasize the continuity with law and prophets when the Christian communities formed themselves no longer in but alongside Israel’s synagogue-based mainstream.

Conclusion: Reflections on the Praxis of the Sermon on the Mount Today
One does not normally say something in a scholarly commentary about the meaning of the text for today. However, I do it often in this commentary, at the end of each of the five discourses but also in connection with a number of individual texts. I do it especially with the Sermon on the Mount for two reasons:
a. For Matthew the evangelist there is no such thing as understanding the Sermon on the Mount apart from praxis. For him the criterion by which one recognizes true and false prophecy—even true and false interpretation of the Jesus tradition—is praxis. An interpretation that establishes only what was meant at an earlier time would run counter to the entire claim of the Sermon on the Mount.
b. My observations about the history of the text’s influence have been designed to illustrate what has influenced my own dealings with the texts and which interpretive traditions have been repressed in my own tradition. One does not interpret the Sermon on the Mount in a vacuum where an interpreter can see the text with absolute clarity. Especially with the Sermon on the Mount, this text, so often discomforting and in the “mainstream” churches so frequently neutralized and repressed, it is obvious that where one stands influences one’s historical interpretation, not to mention one’s present praxis.
1. I begin by reflecting on a matter of principle. At every step my interpretation has called attention to the great disparity between the Matthean understanding of the Sermon on the Mount and especially the interpretive tradition influenced by the Reformation. I have tried repeatedly to make clear that the Matthean Sermon on the Mount is a corrective of, if not an actual program in opposition to, the attempts since the Reformation to domesticate it. Now I ask the opposite question: Is there such a thing as a “hermeneutical benefit” of the Reformation’s interpretive tradition for our modern understanding of the Sermon on the Mount?
In his impressive interpretation of the Sermon on the Mount, Hans Weder has repeatedly called attention to the fundamental distinction between “being” and “demand.” “How can something that comes to me as a demand express my new being? The demand can only express what I should be or could be (if I fulfilled it). Accordingly, the demand always aims toward a possibility of my activity; it never expresses my reality.” And: “This new being … is God’s business and is appropriated in faith, while human behavior corresponds to this new being. With faith people enter into a relationship with God, while with praxis they shape their relationship to the world.” Weder himself is not completely certain whether he may also assume for Matthew this distinction between being and praxis that is basic for Pauline theology. In my judgment this is not possible. But the fear of his “hermeneutic of suspicion,” nourished by Reformation theology, that Matthew might therefore become a theologian of works-righteousness is wrong.2 Not only the incorporation of the “ethical” Sermon on the Mount into the story of Jesus but also the view of the gracious “will of the Father” rooted in Jewish thought demonstrate that this fear is misguided. In a globalized world in which unemployment is one of the greatest scourges of humanity and in which work is understood by so many people not only as a source of material resources but also as giving purpose to one’s life, it should be understandable that it is “gospel” when Jesus calls people to “work” at love and at goodness and when his heavenly Father regards them—every one of them—as “qualified” for this “work.” And for a world of global “self-enrichment,” a binding “will of the Father” that places limits on this compulsion in the name of love is a major benefit.
Nevertheless, it seems to me that the Reformation’s basic approach for the interpretation of the Sermon on the Mount is of great significance today. By no means do I want to make this approach the standard for judging the substance of the Matthean approach. However, in the situation of the secular post-Christian and postindustrial societies of Western Europe and North America, I regard it as indispensable. It is important that we remember that life and the fundamentals of life cannot be manufactured; they can only be received as a gift. We must remember that a gift over which we have no control precedes all of our “acting”—a gift that can be neither caused nor planned nor produced. This has unforeseeable consequences for all human “acting,” planning, and producing but also for peace activities, righteousness, and the church. The modern people who have become independent even of God have inherited this insight as a legacy of the Reformation on their way to modernity, and they have also emancipated themselves from it, in my judgment to our common loss.
Moreover, this basic insight is by no means only an idea of the Reformation or only Pauline. Matthew is aware that prayer to the Father stands at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end of all human deeds (6:1–18*), and here he is in full agreement with Paul.3 He also knows that the promise of entering a “kingdom of heaven” stands over all righteous human behavior. It is a kingdom that toto coelo is different from everything that human praxis can bring about (5:3*, 10*; 6:10*; 7:21–23*).
I am pleased that there is a basic convergence here between Hans Weder and me on the interpretation of the Sermon on the Mount for today. Thus this convergence does not include our exegetical judgment about the Sermon on the Mount, nor does it include the extent of this approach. In contrast to Weder I probably regard it as contextually and not merely universally valid. It seems to me that it is especially relevant for the power elite, for producers, for men, for intellectuals, but also for the large majority of those who are “only consumers.” But it cannot be the decisive approach for people in Third World countries, especially for the suffering, the poor, people without legal protections, the powerless, and women.
2. I would now like to call attention to two focal points that serve as examples of where in my judgment the Sermon on the Mount is relevant to today’s circumstances.
The Sermon on the Mount and the Shape of the Church

One can see the end of the national or state church in many formerly Protestant countries of Western Europe. The discrepancy among a still intact state church institution, a rapidly crumbling financial basis, and the experience that for all practical purposes the churches have largely become minority churches is obvious. Communities, house churches, and monastic-like societies confront the church with the Matthean question about a Christian way of life that is different from that of the world and that could be a light that helps people recognize and praise the heavenly Father (5:16*).4
I have been surmising that the two-kingdoms doctrine, which abandoned the idea that the Sermon on the Mount could be realized even in the church, in large measure reflects the (historically conditioned) decision of especially the followers of Luther that the time has not yet arrived for making real the church composed of people who seriously want to be Christians. What was historically understandable in the sixteenth century, what in the eighteenth century in Pietism led not only to a renewal of the church but was also a burden for the church, may for the sake of the church’s renewal be well overdue in the twenty-first century. In my judgment the churches of northern Europe must today intentionally move in the direction of reshaping themselves as minority churches, something that for all practical purposes they have already become without intending to do so. In the process Matthew could be a great help—the Matthew who is an exponent of a minority church that walks on the way to perfection and is different from the world in the way it lives (Matt 5–7), in its witness in poverty and suffering (Matt 10), and in its fellowship of forgiveness (Matt 18).
When a church such as the Catholic church of the Early and High Middle Ages, in a time when it had already become a state church (Volkskirche), preserves a perfectionistic interpretation of the Sermon on the Mount from the time when it had been a minority church, the process can operate as salt. The late medieval poor people’s movements testify to the power of this salt. If the distinction between perfect and “normal” Christians, between counsels and commandments, encourages the “normal” to start on the way of perfection and to seek their form of perfection, it could also become “productive” and helpful for a church that wants to begin to move.
When, however, a Protestant church that has long since de facto become a minority church takes its remaining members for granted, holds firmly to its own Protestant, state-church interpretation of the Sermon on the Mount, and refuses to make the Sermon on the Mount the vision and guide for a future form of its own church, it becomes tasteless and a salt unfit to demonstrate to the modern world an alternative kind of fellowship. It then gives people no reason to praise the Father in heaven (5:16*), and in the contradiction between its preaching and its own form it is in danger of losing the ability to preach credibly.
In my judgment the Sermon on the Mount not only calls into question the way Christians live their lives; it perhaps even more questions the form of the church. By that I am not merely raising a question about its praxis, as if according to Matthew the church were something other than what it lives and does. In its praxis the church is to be the light that it is (cf. 5:14–16*). According to the Sermon on the Mount that involves such things as an obligation to be engaged visibly on behalf of peace (5:38–48*), poverty as the form of the church (6:19–34*),8 abandoning legal rights (5:38–39*; 7:1–2*), as well as boldness in devotion and prayer (6:2–18*; 7:7–11*). The Matthean community was a tiny minority group in Israel and in the pagan society with many characteristics of a “sect,”9 and it had to struggle for its identity and for its compulsory praxis. In their numbers our state churches no longer differ very much from such a community, but in their self-understanding they are miles away from such a church. One wonders whether the Gospel of Matthew, especially the three discourses of chaps. 5–7, 10, and 18, could become a vision of what the church might be today.
The Sermon on the Mount and Politics

What is the significance of the Sermon on the Mount for political action? For some it is a “declaration of Jesus’ politics about government.” The Society for Protestant Theology (Gesellschaft für Evangelische Theologie) stated in 1981: “We reject … attitudes and teachings that limit the Sermon on the Mount to the private sphere in order to exclude from it political responsibility”; and: “Because God’s peace is all-encompassing, the instructions of the Sermon on the Mount include all areas of life.” On the other side the political relevance of the Sermon on the Mount has been energetically denied by such people as Helmut Schmidt, the former chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany.13 He has received exegetical support from distinguished scholars. It is claimed that the Sermon on the Mount is the end of all politics. The fourth and fifth antitheses mean “plainly and simply that one gives up all claim to government order; and the sixth …, the demand to love the enemy, can also only be realized by the individual or the small group,” for the Sermon on the Mount states “God’s conditions for entering” the kingdom of God—a kingdom that “means the end of a history ‘made’ by human beings and the end of all human politics.”
The opposing positions are irreconcilable. I therefore want to try to state some perspectives that I have derived from the Matthean Sermon on the Mount. First, a reminder of some exegetical conclusions.
1. Jesus’ ethics are ethics of contrast based on the dawning of the kingdom of God—a kingdom that is different from the world. To live a life based on these ethics is to establish in the world a sign of the (totally different) kingdom of God.
2. Jesus’ ethics of the kingdom of God do not mean that the world may be left to itself; they mean rather that the world is fundamentally called into question.
3. Since Matthew was aware of this horizon, he did not develop his Sermon on the Mount merely as the church’s “internal” ethics of discipleship about which outsiders did not need to be concerned; it is a primary content of the missionary proclamation that the church owes “all nations” (28:19*).
4. The individual commandments of the Sermon on the Mount do not merely deal with “internal questions” of the Christian community; they are directed—especially clearly in the fourth through the sixth antitheses and in 6:19–34*—toward an activity lived in the community’s relationship to the world.
5. Missionary preaching takes place in such a way that the community practices the ethics of the Sermon on the Mount so that people are convinced by their works and praise the heavenly Father for them (cf. 5:16*).
The history of the interpretation of the Sermon on the Mount in the churches of the Reformation and the Anabaptist churches showed two quite different models of how the community’s relationship to the world could be lived. They both had their weaknesses. The Anabaptist churches tended for the sake of the purity of the gospel to limit the Sermon on the Mount to the Christian’s inner life and to leave worldly responsibility to others. The Reformation’s distinction between being a Christian and being a human being in the world easily led people to internalize the contrast commandments of the Sermon on the Mount and to judge their political activity by other standards. However, Christian communities and churches are called on the basis of the Sermon on the Mount to exhibit obedience to the Father’s will in all worldly areas. Unlike the Anabaptist churches of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, in most countries the state churches of Europe have the possibility of doing so today.
If in certain areas of the world such as politics the church were to choose not to realize the will of the Father and to practice the conditions for entering the kingdom of heaven, it would become unfaithful to its preaching task. It would no longer be the church. The question remains open how it can do that in the political arena. It is not alone in its task; only in a shared responsibility and in rational communication with non-Christians is it responsible. Churches, congregations, communities, and monastic orders are called to be signs of hope for the coming kingdom of God. That cannot be true in a direct sense of a politics shared by Christians and non-Christians. Both are needed, because the kingdom of God concerns the entire world. Political action in common with others will be more rational and will more indirectly correspond to the Father’s will than will be the direct obedience that the church can carry out and tolerate in its own body.
Without intending to do so, in the golden rule (7:12*) Matthew has given a noteworthy suggestion of how the Sermon on the Mount might be translated into rationally communicable action. On the basis of love he understands it as a first step, as a way of taking the initiative, in approaching one’s neighbors. Its premise is that one’s neighbors are not monsters but that they can respond to love. To that extent even the golden rule is not something that can be rationally proven; its presuppositions are of the nature of faith. Nevertheless, its widespread dissemination shows that it contains a large measure of rationality and a great potential for consensus. Thus it could serve as a guideline for the political action of Christians in communication with non-Christians.
In the 1980s the Sermon on the Mount was of great topical interest. The people of Europe lived in the midst of a life-threatening “balance of horror” between cruise missiles and SS-5 rockets. Churches and nations were equally challenged by the peace movement, which far exceeded the boundaries of the churches. One of their central texts was the Sermon on the Mount. It was a text of hope for a wide public. Associated with it was the hope for a different, a more human, politics oriented to peace. When I look back today on that “time of the Sermon on the Mount” it is not without a certain sadness.
Today the SS-5 rockets are scrapped, but the peace movement has disappeared and with it an important sign of hope. Even the Sermon on the Mount has disappeared from public view. The Pax Americana under which we all live defines what peace is to be. Most churches are little engaged politically, and when they are they often are looking out for their own interests.
Where today is the significance of the Sermon on the Mount for political action? It is still the task of the churches, congregations, and communities to be signs of the kingdom of God for the world. It is also their task, based on Jesus’ command to love one’s enemies, to take the initiative in working rationally with others for peace in the manner of the golden rule. Now that the immediate physical threat to humanity posed by the military balance of horror has somewhat diminished, we have the chance to remind ourselves that peace is multidimensional, that there is no peace without righteousness (Matt 5:6*) and that one cannot at the same time serve God and mammon (6:24*). In a time in which the human person is subordinated to the marketplace and the lives of the poorest people are pawns of globalization, it is essential to remember that in the center of all politics inspired by the Sermon on the Mount is the person of whom the love of enemies speaks. Hence it follows that a politics oriented to righteousness and the well-being of all people takes precedence over economics and the global marketplace that reduces people to instruments. The promise of the kingdom of God is only for the one who “hungers and thirsts for righteousness” (5:6*) and acts accordingly.
Indices
1. Passages
b / Old Testament Pseudepigrapha

Adam and Eve
19 245

Apoc. Abr.
title 69
12.1 151
13 148

As. Mos.
6.4 120
10.1 318
10.8 187

2 Baruch
11.6 187
14.12 332
52.5–7 199
52.6 285
53–74 86
77.13 207
77.16 207
83.3 300
85.13 371

1 Enoch
58.2 187
62.2 95
69.27–29 95
89.42 355
90.26–27 235
91.18–19 371
93; 91 86
94.1, 3, 10 228
94.7–10 332
95.7 199
97.8–10 332
99.10 187
99.13 228
102.9 228
105.2 121
108 386

2 Enoch
3–22 220
30:15 371
33.1–2 86
41.2–42.14 188
44.3 237
44.5 352
49.1 261, 265, 266
50:4 273
50:5 332
52.6–13 188
52.11–13 198
52.15 187
61.1 363
71.1–23 92
71.32–37 92

Ep. Arist.
188, 208–10 289
207 362, 363
227 285

Jos. Asen.
10.13 354
29.3–4 285

Jub.
title 69
1.24–25 198, 287
1.28 196
17.16–18 148
18.9, 12 148
20.4 245
22.14 195
23.19–21 380
32.19 195
32.34 121
41.1–2 84

Lives of the prophets (Vitae prophetarum)
2.8 92

Mart. Isa.
5 148, 150

Sib. Or.
2.68 261
3.47 318
3.246 217

Syriac Menander
246–47 363

T. Abr.
2.6 261
7.5 380
8 370, 371
11 371

T. Jacob
1.9 301

T. Job
1.1 69
6–8 148
21.2 219
22.3 219
43.5–6 333

T. Sol.
22.8, 23.3 152

T. 12 Patr.

T. Benj.
4.2–3 285
4.2 333
5.3 208
6.4–7 334
8.2 245
9.1 228
11.1 375

T. Dan
1.7–8 233

T. Gad
5.7 333
6.3–7 285

T. Iss.
3.2–5.1 (3.4) 334
3.8, 4.2 334
6.1 380
7.2 245

T. Jud.
10.1 84
24.1 104, 141
24.3 198, 287

T. Levi
5.1 371
13.9 237
14.3 207
16.4 228
18.3 104, 107
18.9 95

T. Naph.
1.6 362
2.6 376
8.4 204, 207
8.7 217

T. Reub.
1.7, 4.5, 6.5 228
1.10 193
3.10 246

T. Sim.
2.11 233

T. Zeb.
4.11 233
c / Qumran and Related Texts

CD
3.21, 4.13 127
4.21–5.6 252
7.18–21 104
15.3–4 263
15.4–5 263

1QapGen
20.15 255

1QH
6.3 191, 192

1QM
1.1 69
11.6–7 104
14.7 191

1QS
1.1 69
1.1–2 358
1.6 245
1.10 288
3.13–4.26 371
5.8–11 371
5.11 358
6.25–27, 7.2–5, 5.25–26 236
8.12–16 135
9.21–22 288
10.17–18 273
11.1 192

1QSa
2.11 92

4QFlor
3.10–13 121
4Q119, 121 128

4Q246
2.1–9 121

4Q280
frg 2.2 323

4Q372
1.16 316

4Q525
frg 3 III 188

4Q544
frg 2.3 323

4QMMT
394 354

4QTest
11–13 104

7Q1, 2 128

11QMelch
1.4–5, 9, 19 187
2.6–8 95

11QPs
24.11–12 322
27.2 207

11QT
2 231
54.6–7 231
57.17–19 252
61.12 275
66.4–5 94
d/ Other Jewish Literature

Josephus
Ant.
2 76
2.210–16 92
2.205, 206 104
4.214 241
4.244 251
4.280 275
7.131 251
9.3 300
12.387–88 120
14.21 120
14.374 120
15.42–49 120
16.232 241
18.116 134
18.261–88 273
20.18 97
20.167–72 377

Ap.
1.18 59
1.31–35 82
2.201 252

Bell.
1.656–58 122
2.1–13 122
2.135 263
2.169–74 273
2.350–51 273
2.479 57
3.520 358
4.468 135
6.312 113
7.46–47 57
7.410 120

Vita
3–6 82
11–12 134, 303
Philo

Abr.
1–2 70
1 70

Aet. mund.
19 70

Agric.
102–4 371
103 372

Cher.
40–52 92

Congr.
124–26 84

Decal.
82–95 262
84 263
88 261
92 263
93 263
124 251
142 245
175 127

Deus imm.
137 84

Flacc.
131 213

Fug.
139 196
149 84

Hypothetica 362

Leg. all.
1.48 289

Mut. nom.
121 91
136 84

Omn. prob. lib.
84 263
159 245

Op. mun.
53 335
152 245

Poster. C.
127 70
172 196

Spec. leg.
1.167 240
1.235 261
2.1–38 262
2.4–5 263
2.12 265
2.26–27, 224 261
3.30–31 255
3.72–78 94
4.73 289
4.84 245

Virt.
79 195
116–18 285
221 84–85

Vit. cont.
25–27 301

Vit. Mos.
1.1–4 72
1.276 104

Ps.-Philo
Lib. ant. bib.
9.10 92
11.10 362

Ps.-Phocylides
16 261
52 245
e / Rabbinic Literature

Babylonian Talmud
ʿAbod. Zar.
9a 86
17a 123
20a 246

B. Batra
4a 207
10b 55, 301
15b 352
75a 344
120a 92

Bek.
8b 206
15a 354

Ber.
3a 143, 262
12a 318
16b–17a 324
16b 323
17a 55, 287
24a 246
28b 55
29a 306
29b 310, 316, 324
33a 263
34b 55
40b 317
60b 322, 323
61a 246

Beṣa (Yom Ṭob)
22a 204

B. Meṣ.
30b 237
38b 206
58b 236, 237
59b 352
85a 303

B. Qam.
83–84 275

ʿErub.
18b 246

Giṭ.
90b 255

Ḥag.
15a 143

Mak.
23b 84
24a 220

Ned.
32a 273, 289

Nid.
13b 246

Pesaḥ.
29a, b 354
57b 247
66b 236
112a 251

Qidd.
28a 236
39b, 40a 245
40b 386
70a 246, 352

Sanh.
17b 303
58b 247
81a 220
89b 148
97a 86
97a–b 218
99a 220
100a 195, 344
100b 346
107b 120

Šabb.
31a 363
31b 363
88b 273
104b 120
108b 247
116ab 211, 215
127b 351
151b 196
153a 55
155b 355

Šebu.
36a 263, 265
38a 263

Soṭah
33a 324

Taʿan.
12b 303
22a 198

Yeb.
63a 343
112b 380
121a 274

Yoma
9b 236
29a 245
35b 273
66b 343

Jerusalem Talmud
Ber.
4.4.8a 310, 323
4.8a.45 306
9.13b.7 359
13c 345

B. Qam.
8.6c.19 196

Pesaḥ.
7.35.28 152

Qidd.
1.10.61d 220
1.59d.29 135
4.66b.38 345

Šebu.
6.37a.54 263

Mishnah
ʾAbot
1.2 173
1.4 195
1.5 246
1.6 351
1.12, 18 198
2.1 219
2.4 351
2.9 55
2.9, 11 333
2.10 363
2.13 310
3.11 236
3.17 386
4.4, 10 191
4.5 300
4.19 273, 285
5.2 85

Ber.
4.1 301
4.4 310, 324

B. Qam.
8.6 272
9.12 240

Nid.
2.1 247

Peʾa
1.1 198

Qidd.
4.4–5 82
4.14 345

Šabb.
16.7 204

Sanh.
1.4 235
3.2 262, 265

Šebu.
3.1–9 263
3.7 263

Šeqal.
5.6 301

Soṭah
5.1 255
7.1 324
12 104

Taʿan.
1.2–7 303
1.3–7 303
2.1 303

Yoma
8.1 303
8.9 240, 322

Targums
Tg. Cant.
on 2:12 143

Tg. Exod.
1.15 76

Tg. Isa.
11.4 323

Tg. Job
34.36 315

Tg. Jonathan
on Num 11:32 343

Tg. Mal.
2.10 315

Tg. Mic.
5.1 103

Tg. Obadiah
14 318

Tg. Onq.
on Gen 9:6 235
on Exod 20:13 250

Tg. Ps.
89.27 315

Tg. Yer. I
on Exod 1:15 104
on Lev 19:18 363, 365
on Lev 22:28 289

Tosephta
Ber.
3.7 319

B. Qam.
9.29–30 274
9.30.366 196
9.31 236

Pesaḥ.
3.1 240

Šabb.
16.22 301

Soṭah
11.11 121

Other Rabbinic Literature

ʾAbot R. Nat.
4 55
15 363
16.4 288
24 386, 387
B 26 363

Deut. Rab.
7.7 55

Exod. Rab.
1.13 92
1.18 104
1.22 76
6.1 218
15.26 86
21.3 306

Gen. Rab.
10.1 218
42 55
47 213
56 148
56.4 148
59 207
85.9 84
85.12 84

Lev. Rab.
23 245
34 359

Mek. Exod.
18.20 237
20.3 265
20.22 228
20.25 198
23.4 287
44b 204
on 15:20 92
55b 320, 343
20.22 228
20.23 359
81a 316

Midr. Ps.
4 359
15 220
41 273
67.6 204
148 104
on 105:3 85

Midr. Qoh.
1.3 207

Midr. Ruth
2.1 84
5.6 119

Num. Rab.
13.14 85
19.8 55

Pesiq. R.
9.167b 83
24 245
36 150, 157
40b 55

Pesiq. R. Kah.
49b 119
179b 371

Pirqe R. El.
15 371

Sepher ha-yashar
239 105

Shemoneh Esreh (Eighteen Benedictions)
6 322
7 323
11 318
12 122–23

Shir Rab.
on Song 7:3 139
5.11 213

Sipra Lev.
18.6 317
19.2 289
19.14 237
24.19–20 276

Sipre Deut.
6.4–5 §31 228

Sipre Num.
6.26 §42 198
on 15.31 §112 220
11.21–22 §95 228

Tanna debe Eliyyahu
21 317

Yalkut Shimoni
on Exod. 2:15 105
g/ Early Christian Literature and the Ancient Church

Act. Petri
31–32 152

Act. Thom.
20.89, 96 112
79 376

Afrahat
Homilies
2.6–7 219

Ambrose
De Abraham
1.4.25 257

Cain et Abel
1.9.37 312

In Luc.
2.90 142
4.16 154
5.49–82 188
5.53 192
5.54 194

Off.
1.11 291

Apoc. Abr.
12.1 151
13 148

Apoc. Adam
NHC 5.78.18–20 92

Apoc. Pet.
NHC 7.75–76
(= NHL, 375) 382

Apollinaris of Laodicea
frg. 20 239

Apophthegmata Patrum
Ammon 11 373
Poimen 112 373

Arabic Infancy Gospel
24.25 124

Aristides
Apol.
15.5 285

Athanasius
Contra Gentes
2 197

Ant.
3 347

Athenagoras
Suppl.
11 285
11.1 284
33 256

Augustine
Cons. ev.
2.17 (37, 41) 163

Adult. conj.
2.4 256

Civ. D.
14.8 366
19 278
19.7 278
21.27 313

Enchiridion
15 383
19 291
30 309
49 142

Ep.
136.2 278
138 278

Ep. ad Macedonium (no. 153)
4.9 94

De gratia Christi
18–19 383

In Joh. Ev. Tract.
15.4 145

Mend.
15 266
28 266

Nupt. concup.
1.10 256

De ordine
2.25 362

Sermo
3 304
57.7 320
105.6–7 360
200.1 108
202.1 108
203.1 116

Sermone Domini
1.1 171, 178
1.6 205
1.8 218
1.9 235
1.10 240
1.12 243, 244
1.13 247
1.16 254
17 266, 267
1.20 279, 280
2.7 320
2.13 335
2.15 342
2.17 347
2.18 350
2.24 381
2.25 387

Barn.
10.3–4 355
18.1–20.2 371
19.4 194

Basil
Ep.
188 257
199 266

Or.
8.6–7 238

Regulae brevius
51 235
164 351
205 193

Sanct. Christi gener.
4 94

Benedict
Regula Benedicti
13 313

Caesarius of Arles
Sermo
139 111

Chromatius
1.1 87
6.2 220
12.1.2 144
12.1.5 145
27.2.2–3 306
202 316
332 193

1 Clem.
12.1 83
13.2 196, 350, 363
13.4 194
17.1 377
21.7 194
30.8 194
60.1 186

2 Clem.
4.2, 5 376
5.2–3 377
8.5 169
11.1 187
13.1 208
13.4 271, 284, 285
16.4 298

Clement of Alexandria
Ecl. proph.
7 145

Exc. Theod.
74 107

Paed.
2.63.4 107
3.12 366
3.70.1–2 243
3.70.4 333

Prot.
10 373

Quis Div. Salv.
17.5 192

Strom.
1.9.44.4 154
1.15 115
1.24.163, 1–2 114
2.20 197
2.23 256
3.6 214
4.5.1 358
4.30.4 335
4.93.3 293
4.138.2 300
5.11–12 361
5.99.1 261
7.50.1 266
7.67.5 261
7.86.1 285, 293

Ps.-Clement
Hom.
1.6.4 166
2.6–12 376
2.10 381
3.51.1–3 215
3.52.2 373
3.55.1 261
3.56.2 360
3.67.1 207
7.7.3 370
11.35 381
13.5.1 141
13.11.2 141
15.5.5 272
15.10.1 192
19.2.4 261

Rec.
1.48 145
1.64 51
2.9.3 152
2.20.2 344
2.28.3 193
2.3.4–5 356
3.1.4–7 356
3.47.2 152
7.37.3–7 247

Const. ap.
5.12.6 261
7.45 312

Cyprian
Bon. pat.
3 285

Dom. Or.
9 312, 315, 324
18 320
25 323
35 313

Eleem.
9 347

Ep.
58.6 122

Hab. Virg.
16 265

De mort.
4 266

Test.
3.12 266

(Ps.-)Cyprian
De aleatoribus
2 209

Cyril of Alexandria
frg.
15 124
37 166
41 205
61 257
66 280
77 335

Commentariorum in Matthaeum
380–81 266

Comm in Luc.
4 153

Cyril of Jerusalem
Cat. myst.
3.7 136
3.11 142
5.11–18 312

Did.
1.1 371
1.2–5.2 373
1.2–2.5 371
1.2 363, 365, 366
1.3–5 271
1.3 273, 284
1.3b–2.1 174
1.5–5.2 371
2.2 112
2.3 261
3.2 233
3.7–8 194
3.7 195
3.8 186
5.1 112
6.2 290
7.1–2 44
7.1 373
8.1–2 299, 302, 310
8.2–3 309
8.2 169, 323
9.5 356
10.5 323
11.3 169
11.5 381
11.6 377
11.10 381
16.3–4 377
16.3 377

Didascalia
9 235, 239, 350
11 240
14.1–2 240
21 159
26 51, 219

Ephraem (Ephrem) Syrus
6.7 247

Nat.
3.19 145

Carmina Sogyata
5 143

Epiphanius

Haer.
19.6.2 261
28.5 51
29.6 122
30.3, 7 46
30.13.2–3 59
30.13.7–8 143
30.16.2–4,
18.5 145
33.3.4 215
33.6.1 228, 266
59.4.9 257

Panarion
24.5.2 356

Ep. Petr. ad Jac.
2.3–7 215

Epistle of Peter
NHC 8 48

Ep. Apostolorum
18 366

Eusebius
Dem. ev.
6.20 124
7.2 (5) 123
9.2 124
9.5 134

Hist. eccl.
1.7 86
1.7.1 87
2.15.1 13
3.12, 19 82
3.24.6 46, 48
3.39.15 13
3.39.16 13
4.26.14 70, 126
5.10.3 46
5.21 124
6.25.4 46, 48
20.1–6 82
32.3–4 82

Praep. ev.
8.7.6 362

Quaest. ad Steph.
1 86
1.3 94
16.2 116
16.3 106

Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew
18–21 124

Gos. Thom.
1.9–10 338
6 298, 363
32–33 209
36 340
37 340
45 376, 382
47 336
54 186
62 298
76 331
93 354, 356
94 354

Gos. Truth
NHC
2.33.37ff. 382

Gregory of Nazianzus
Or.
2.79 357
4 266
4.72 273
4.97, 99 280
40 209
53.8 267

Poem. Mor.
2 154

Gregory of Nyssa

Beat.
1.4 193
2.3 194
4.5 195
4.7 195
6.3 197
6.6 201
8.6 201

Orat. Cat. M.
26.1 154

Or. Dom.
1.5 305
4.1 320
5.1–2 322
5.3 313

Virg.
21 243

Hermas
Man.
4.1.5 255
4.1.9 254
4.6 256
4.7–8, 10–11 255
11 376
11.12–13 381
12.6.5 196

Sim.
9.29.3 186

Vis.
1.4.1, 3 102
2.2.7 186
3.9.8 187, 196

Hilary
In Evangelium Matthaei Commentarius
109, 138, 154, 188, 240, 247, 255, 302, 356, 372, 387

Hippolytus
In Matthaeum 24
on Matt 24:22* 124

Dem. Christ. Antichr.
45 134

Ref.
5.7.28 209
7.35–36 145
7.35 142
9.17.1 356

Hunnius
Commentarius in Evangelium S. Matthaei Apostoli & Evangelistae
229

Ignatius
Eph.
7.1 355
7.2 99
10.1 292
10.2 194
13.2 145
14.2 378
19.3 106

Magn.
6.1 235
9.1 51

Phld.
2.2 377
3.1 58
5.1 169
6.1 51
8.1 235
8.2 51, 169
9.2 169

Pol.
2.1 271

Rom.
5.1 274

Smyrn.
1.1–2 144
1.1 58, 99
7.2 169

Trall.
3.1 235

Irenaeus
Haer.
1.6.1 205
1.26.1 144
1.26.2 51
1.30.12 144
2.32.1 266
3.1.1 46, 59
3.9.2 107
3.11.3 144
3.11.7 51
3.11.8 88
4.13.1 215
4.13.2 229
4.20.6 197
4.30.3 350
5.21 154
29.6.1 123

Isaac of Antioch
Hom.
36 247

Isidore of Pelusium
Ep.
1.83 247

Jerome
Commentariorum in Matthaeum libri IV
81, 83, 86, 87, 94, 119, 121, 136, 163, 193, 195, 209, 238, 244, 266, 279, 280, 318, 335, 336, 347, 372

Dan.
1.1 87

Ep.
22.5 243
55.4 256
57.7 118, 123
77.3 257

Helv.
4–7 98

In Jes.
11.1 123

In Tit.
3.12 320

Pelag.
1.6–9, 10, 23 180
1.30 291
3.2 141

Vir. ill.
124
3.3 46

John Chrysostom
Commentarius in sanctum Matthaeum Evangelistam
83, 86, 94, 108, 109, 111, 121, 122, 136, 138, 142, 145, 154, 157, 159, 178, 195, 215, 217, 219, 220, 229, 235, 238, 240, 243, 247, 254, 266, 273, 299, 300, 305, 316, 319, 320, 333, 335, 347, 360, 387, 390

Hom. in Col.
6.4 312

Justin

Apol.
1.14.3 285
1.15 256
1.15.9–13 271
1.15.9 284, 285
1.15.10–17 331
1.15.11–12 331
1.15.16 335
1.16.1–2 271
1.16.5 260, 266
1.16.13 376
1.31, 48, 54 166
1.66.3 13
1.67.3 13
2.2 255, 257
2.10.6 358

Dial.
10.2 179
20.1 70
43.1 86
43.5–8 97
47.2–3 51
49.1 145
76.5 376
78.3 94
78.5 106
78.8 121
78.9 106
84.1–4 97
88.1 143
93.2–3 366
96.3 271, 284
100.3 86
106.3 13
106.4 104

Ps.-Justin
De resurrectione 99

Juvencus
1.250–51 107

Lactantius
De ira Dei
17 238

Leo the Great
Ep.
28 99

Sermons
37.4 122
39.3 151
90.2 372, 373
95.1 182
95.2 192

Macarius
Hom.
26.25 373

Martyrdom of Apollonius
6 268

Maximus of Turin
Hom.
21 107

Maximus Confessor
Expositio orationis Dominicae
(PG 90.872–909) 325

Origen
Cels.
1.28, 38 120
1.34–35 97
1.48 143
1.51 106
1.60 104, 107
1.66 120
2.32 82
7.33 197
7.51 209
7.68, 70 336
8.2, 5, 8, 15 336
8.68 281
8.70 209

Comm. in Ps.
37.7 193

Commentary on Matthew
13.24 on Matt 18:8–9 247
on Matt 14:23 257

frg. (GCS Origenes 12)
18 94
29 108
70 159
83 195
97 215
98 215
116 302
118 305
138 I 360
138 II 361
142 364
145 381
153 387

Hom. in Cant.
2.8 290

Hom. in Ezek.
1:11 139
1:13 138
16:4 205

Hom. in Jer.
2.3 138

Hom. in Lev.
6.3 243

Hom. in Luc.
28 87
29 153
30 155
38 201

Hom 14
on Gen 26:23ff. 116

Or.
2.27.1 319
2.27.7 319
18.2–3 310
20.1 302
21.1 305, 306
27.13 321
29.2 322
29.1.4, 9 323

Princ.
1.8.2 383

In Rom.
8.11 382

Papias
frg.
5.15 13
5.16 13

Peter Chrysologus
Sermo
70 312
158 109

Photius of Constantinople
frg.
(Reuss, 272) 121
29 364

Polycarp
Phil.
2.3 58, 196, 350
6.2 310
7.2 58, 310
12.3 271, 287

Protoevangelium of James
22–23 78

Tertullian
Adv. Iud.
8 145

De anima
21.4 382

Apol.
46.9 358
46.11 247

Bapt.
10 136
20 150

De carne Christi
20–22 86

Cast.
9 243

Cult. fem.
2.6 265

Fuga
13 277

Idol.
9 107
9.5.7 109

Marc.
1.2.2 382
3.13 115
4.8 124
4.16 276
4.34.7 255
5.14.14 215

Monog.
7 215
8 136
9 256

Or.
1 215, 312
8 323

Pat.
6 285, 290

Praescr. haer.
4 381
8–14 361

Pud.
2 350
6 215

Scap.
1 285

Spect.
26 336

Ad uxorem
2.3 336

Theodore of Heraclea
frg.
18 138
21 142
25 208
27 239
34 257
40 290
45 335

Theodore of Mopsuestia
frg.
16 145
22 155
24 209

Fragm. Dogm.
8 145
13 154

In Joh.
1.32 143

Thomas, Infancy Story of
5 361
h/ Greek and Latin Authors

Achilles Tatius

8.10.10 299

Aelianus
De natura animalium
12.21 77

Var. Hist.
14.22 196

Aeschinus
Or.
3.74 261

Aesop
Proverbia
51P 377

Appian
B. civ.
1.31 §138 241

Apuleius
Met.
11.2 305

Aristophanes
Av.
1725 186

Nu.
1206 186
1468 265

Vesp.
1275 186

Pax
119 358
715 186

Aristotle
Cael.
2.12 195

Eth. Eud.
7.15 197
1235a 247

Eth. M.
1.20 320

Eth. Nic.
4.11 194, 238

De partibus animalium
1.1 320
5.1 320

Poet.
6 11

Rhetorica
3.14.5–6 72
1384b 364

De sensu
437a 22–26 333

Topica
1.17 335

Cicero
Divin.
1.23.47 112

Epistulae ad Diversos
16.21.2 299

Ep. ad Quint.
3.5 196

Off.
1.118 148

Or.
36.5 263

Tusc.
2.26 301

Demosthenes
Or.
19.318 261
25.90 299

Dio Cassius
37.17–18 105
45.1–2 77
52.34, 39 363
63.1–7 105

Dio Chrysostom
Or.
1.66–84 148
8.2 299

Diodorus Siculus
10.9.1–2 262
14.5.1–2 241
16.66.3 114
17.80.2 236
19.2.2–7 78
19.94.10 135

Diogenes Laertius
3.2 93, 97
4.49 372
6.62 273
8.22 262
8.40 151

Epictetus
Diss.
1.28.20 358
2.18.15 245
3.12.10 273
3.22.54 273, 286
4.1.51 358
4.1.79 271
4.5.9 273
4.8.17 301
4.9.3 245

Ench.
33.5 262, 263
42 273

Etymologicum magnum
173 305

Euripides
frg. 446 186

Heliodorus
Aeth.
2.16.1 247

Herodotus
1.107–22 77
1.199 217
1.200 203
4.117 217
5.92 76

Hesychius
138, 152, 213, 305, 344

Homer
1.3.182 186
Iliad
1.524–25 262

Horace
Carm.
1.2.26 305

Ep.
1.2.26 355
1.18.23 196
2.2.75 355
2.2.187 104

Sat.
1.2.5 352
1.5.91 358

Hyginus
Fabulae
29 97

Iamblichus

Vit. Pyth.
9.47 262

Isocrates
Ad Nicocleam
49 363
61–62 364

Justinus
Epitome
1.4 77
1.37.2 76, 104

Juvenal
14.152 299

Lucian
Timon
11 305

Marcus Aurelius Antonius
2.1 286
3.5 263
5.7 305
9.11 286
9.27 273

Martial
7.60.3 305

Menander
Sententiae
592 262

Ovid
Ex Pont.
4.14.17–18 247

Pausanias
2.26.5 104

Petronius

Sat.
25.1 265

Philostratus
Vit. Ap.
1.11 305
6.19 262

Plato
Ap.
22A 262

Gorg.
469c 273

Men.
71E 288

Resp.
562c 196
7.527D–E,
7.533D 197

Symp.
205e 247
211D-E 197

Tim.
28c 358
41E 104

Plautus
Poenulus
1.2.203 305

Pliny
Hist. nat.
2.28 104
11.15.41 135
30.11 112
30.16 105
31.45 206
31.82 206

Plutarch
2.275C 262
2.521D 247
Alex.
2.4–5 97
Comparatio Aristophanis et Menandri
2.854C 205
De Iside et Osiride
13 78
Mor.
515D 352
Quaest. conv.
2.668F 206
8.1 97
Timoleon
8 114

Pollux
Onom.
1.89–90 152
2.80, 85 152
5.29 152
9.23 372

Porphyry
Vit. Pyth.
57 151

Quintilian
Inst. Orat.
9.2.98 262

Seneca
Ben.
2.7.1 358
4.26.1 286

Ep.
31.5 305
37.25 378
47.11 364
51.13 247
75.7 387

De ira
2.10.6 378
2.33.2 273
3.23.2 273

Sextus
Sent.
89, 90 365

Sophocles
Antigone
523 286

Oed. Col.
650 262

Oed. Tyr.
781 320

Suetonius
Augustus
94.3 77

Nero
13 105
36 77, 104

Stobaeus
Ecl.
3.27.1 262

Suidas
1.462 305

Tacitus
Agr.
1–3 72

Ann.
14.22 104
15.24 105

Hist.
5.4 105

Terentius
5.1.6–7 305

Themistius
Or.
23.285b 151

Virgil
Aen.
2.692–97 114
4.510 305

Xenophon
Mem.
1.3.2 306
2.1.21–34 148, 371
2. Greek Words

(In some cases only the English translation appears in the text.)

ἀκολουθέω
See Disciples, Discipleship

βασιλεία
193, 204–5, 274–75, 318, 345, 372
—τῶν οὐρανῶν
135, 160

γυνή
See Women

διδάσκω
168–169

δίκαιος
95

δικαιοσύνη
142–43, 195, 199, 221–22, 299, 304, 344, 392

ἔθνος, ἔθνη
84–85, 158–159

ἐξουσία
230–31, 389–90

εὐαγγέλιον
14–15, 160, 168–69, 391

Ἰουδαῖος
113

κηρύσσω
160, 168–69

κρίσις
See Judgment

κύριος
379

λαός
95, 113, 137

μαθητής
See Disciples

ὁμολογέω
379–80

παραδίδωμι
157

πατήρ
208, 290, 295, 314–316, 359, 379

πληρόω
120, 126–27, 130, 142–43, 214, 217

πραΰς
142, 194–95

προσκυνέω
114, 115, 149

ταπεινός
142, 194

υἱός
120

ὑποκριτής
300

Χριστός
70
3. Subjects

Abbreviating Mark and Q
22, 182, 284

Anabaptists and Matthew
179, 216, 268

Antijudaism
in the history of interpretation
97–98, 109, 137, 302, 306
in Matthew
114, 158, 288

Baptism, 145

Canon (Matthew as a protocanonical book)
12–13

Catholic Christianity and Matthew
98, 178–79, 228–29, 256–59, 387

Chiasm
7, 165, 172

Christology (see also Jesus, Jesus’ exaltation)
as central concern
90
Christological dimensions of texts
130, 144
high Christology
96, 224, 231

Church (see also Disciples, Discipleship)
163, 209, 396
as contrarian society
280–82, 398–99
as corpus permixtum
139, 287, 373
ethical orientation
396–98

Community (Matthew’s)
44, 49–50, 52–56, 106, 126, 377
scribes
44, 49, 129
social makeup
17, 126

Disciples (see also Discipleship)
as figures with whom the readers identify
17, 162

Discipleship [Nachfolge] (see also Disciples)
208, 393

Discourses (of Jesus)
12–13, 172–77, 391–92, 398–99

Dream
95, 115

Ethics
56, 169, 398
in the eschatological horizon
372, 393–94
ethical dimensions of the texts
200, 364–66, 378–79, 393–94
grace and demand
56, 169, 201–2, 208, 345, 373, 379, 383, 388, 392
internalization
180, 199–200, 336–37
keeping Jesus’ commandments
380–81, 383–84, 388, 391
two-level ethic
178, 182, 267, 290

False prophets
56, 376–77

Father (see πατήρ)

Forgiveness of sins
322

Fulfillment Quotations (see πληρόω)

Galilee
157–58

Gentile mission
50–52, 108

Gentiles (see ἔθνος, ἔθνη)

Gospel of John and Matthew
11, 144

Gospel of Luke and Matthew (see also Minor Agreements)
75, 309–10, 385

Gospel of Mark and Matthew
11, 15, 41–43, 49–50, 141, 165

Hermeneutics
allegorical interpretation
108–9
Christological hermeneutics
131, 145–46
content criticism (Sachkritik)
65, 258–59, 381
limits of the possibilities of interpretation
239
new meaning accents
197, 394
openness of the meaning of the text
18, 190, 248, 313
political dimension
111, 397–99
potential meanings
115
reading in terms of the entire Bible
146, 373
situationally conditioned
280–82
trajectory
65–66, 258–59, 393, 395

Inclusion
7, 71, 96, 132, 144, 165, 172–73, 210–11, 362, 373

Israel in Matthew
17–18, 136, 166

Jesus
as a biblical righteous man (see δίκαιος)
as Immanuel
96–97, 391
as Messiah
82
as new Moses
151, 182, 389
as obedient one
144, 150
as son of Abraham
69–70, 82–83, 85
as Son of David
69–70, 82–83
as Son of God
120–21, 144, 152, 154
as Son of Man
42, 138
as teacher
229–30

Jesus’ exaltation
144

Johanan ben Zakkai
55–56

John the Baptist
134–36, 160, 378

Judgment
41–42, 137, 235, 241, 369, 380

Kingdom of God (see βασιλεία)

Law
Jesus’ understanding
237–38
Matthew’s understanding
42–43, 48, 51, 202, 221–22, 232, 251, 265, 276, 380, 392
and Prophets
213–14, 232, 366

Little faith
339–45

Lord’s Supper
48

Love
274–75, 277, 286, 366–68, 392

Matthew (the author)
59–60
bilingual
24, 47
his knowledge of the Bible
125–26
as a Jewish Christian
45–47, 56–57, 223

Minor Agreements
20–21

Mountain
182

Nonviolence
273–75, 277, 281

Obedience
97, 122

Orthodox Christianity and Matthew
257

Parallelism
23, 102, 161

Parting of the Ways (between the synagogues and the Christian communities)
52–55, 131, 166, 222, 393

People/nation (see λαός)

Perfection
289

Prayer
301–4, 325–26, 360, 396
of Jesus
324

Protestant Christianity and Matthew
179, 229, 257–259, 267, 387, 395–96

Reading (sequential) of the Gospel of Matthew
4–5, 7, 11–12, 71

Repetitions
6–7, 22, 130, 174

Righteousness (see δικαιοσύνη)

Sayings Source (Q) and Matthew
19, 41, 49, 174–75

Semitisms
23, 174, 311

Septuagint and Matthew
22, 44, 128–29

Signals/anticipations
8, 18, 148

Special Material (Matthew’s)
21, 175

Transparency of the Gospel of Matthew
11–12, 15–16, 18, 42

Two-Gospel Hypothesis
19–20

Two-Source Hypothesis
19–21

Wirkungsgeschichte (history of the influence of the text)
60–66

Women in Matthew
16–17, 83–85, 251–52

Worship (liturgy)
43–44
4. Authors

(Index includes all medieval commentators cited and modern authors who receive some significant discussion.)

Abrahams, I.
206, 237, 289, 303, 307, 310, 322, 324

Aland, K.
46, 124, 141, 143, 356

Allison, D. C.
1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 19, 21, 23, 46, 53, 56, 60, 69, 70, 83, 85, 89, 92, 95, 97, 98, 103, 114, 119, 123, 128, 137, 140, 141, 143, 148, 150, 151, 152, 158, 163, 170, 172, 174, 176, 182, 183, 187, 196, 205, 210, 214, 218, 230, 245, 247, 250, 271, 275, 276, 298, 301, 314, 328, 330, 331, 332, 333, 334, 335, 345, 349, 351, 355, 358, 375, 387, 389, 390

Aretius, B.
217, 303, 345

Bacher, W.
6, 126, 127, 228, 229, 230

Bacon, B. W.
1, 3, 13, 22, 45, 57, 127, 182, 227, 376

Barth, G.
170, 171, 177, 188, 210, 218, 228, 290, 374, 376

Barth, K.
64, 100, 145, 172, 188, 243, 253, 303, 373, 383, 393

Bauer, D. R.
3, 74, 79, 83, 96

Bauer, W.
47, 100, 126, 143, 283, 284, 290

Beare, F. W.
234, 341

Bede
108, 142, 193, 209,

Bengel, J. A.
110, 134, 195, 196, 247, 267, 302, 329, 341, 350, 379, 387

Berger, K.
33, 212, 226, 227, 228, 233, 237, 242, 245, 246, 249, 264, 342, 363, 380

Betz, H. D.
170, 174, 176, 184, 185, 187, 191, 194, 198, 199, 207, 210, 211, 214, 220, 231, 237, 247, 262, 264, 265, 273, 275, 284, 286, 288, 289, 296, 298, 300, 303, 323, 330, 331, 332, 334, 342, 358, 363, 374, 376, 379, 380, 382, 391

Beyschlag, K.
62, 171, 177, 179, 196, 197, 285, 292, 350

Beza, T.
243, 262, 266, 344

Black, M.
46, 123, 203, 204, 307, 232, 370, 385

Bloch, R.
74, 79, 84, 92, 104, 119

Bonhoeffer, D.
172, 181, 189, 201, 209, 243, 289, 293, 300, 304, 346, 352, 396

Bonnard, P.
69, 195, 254, 353

Bornhäuser, K. B.
170, 188, 196, 254, 302, 342, 372, 388, 392

Bornkamm, G.
53, 141, 152, 168, 170, 172, 174, 210, 218, 237, 328, 369, 375

Bovon, F.
91, 331, 332, 349, 358, 361

Brenz, J.
97, 98, 136, 151, 154, 180, 209, 335, 360, 373, 382

Broer, I.
89, 90, 94, 101, 184, 186, 187, 210, 211, 212, 218, 220, 226, 227, 270

Brooks, S. H.
18, 21, 175, 186

Brown, R. E.
69, 74, 82, 84, 89, 90, 91, 95, 104, 113, 115, 118, 307, 314, 321

Bucer, M.
98, 123, 197, 216, 333, 366, 382

Bullinger, H.
182, 195, 209, 229, 255, 350, 382, 387

Bultmann, R.
90, 92, 143, 149, 200, 204, 227, 234, 291, 305, 331, 338, 340, 342, 343, 363, 392

Burchard, C.
170, 189, 193, 203, 226, 228, 249

Calixtus, G.
382

Calovius, A.
195, 209, 229, 243, 244, 382

Calvin, J.
69, 86, 97, 98, 111, 113, 116, 121, 123, 136, 144, 145, 151, 154, 159, 160, 163, 172, 174, 179, 192, 216, 219, 224, 225, 229, 237, 244, 254, 255, 258, 262, 266, 269, 279, 300, 302, 303, 320, 334, 339, 347, 350, 355, 373, 379, 381, 382, 387

Carter, W.
9, 15, 161, 307, 325

Christian of Stavelot
209

Dalman, G.
34, 39, 122, 123, 161, 212, 213, 228, 231, 233, 235, 307, 311, 314, 317, 318, 319, 322, 323, 343, 378

Daube, D.
119, 185, 226, 228, 270, 272, 276

Dautzenberg, G.
203, 260, 262, 268, 283, 288

Davies, W. D.
3, 5, 6, 19, 21, 23, 44, 45, 46, 53, 55, 56, 60, 69, 70, 83, 85, 95, 98, 103, 114, 123, 128, 137, 140, 141, 143, 148, 150, 152, 158, 163, 170, 172, 185, 187, 196, 205, 210, 214, 218, 219, 227, 245, 247, 250, 271, 275, 276, 288, 298, 299, 301, 307, 314, 328, 329, 332, 334, 335, 345, 349, 351, 355, 358, 375, 387, 389, 390

Degenhardt, H. J.
283, 330, 332, 338, 339

Delling, G.
5, 249, 252, 289, 305

Dibelius, M.
74, 90, 118, 169, 170, 188, 214, 291, 393

Didier, M.
20, 74, 125, 165, 374

Dietzfelbinger, C.
226, 228, 235, 252, 271, 276, 298, 300

Dihle, A.
13, 14, 270, 275, 285, 288, 362, 363, 364, 366

Dionysius bar Salibi
94, 99, 116, 135, 142, 266, 335

Dobschütz, F. von
45, 55, 60, 126

Donaldson, T. L.
147, 148, 182, 207

Drewermann, E.
149, 241, 243, 245, 248, 281, 353

Dupont, J.
140, 142, 147, 150, 170, 172, 184, 186, 188, 189, 191, 192, 195, 199, 214, 249, 253, 256, 257, 283, 290, 296, 297, 307, 338, 344

Edwards, R. A.
9, 11, 13, 17, 161, 163

Eichholz, G.
170, 189, 195, 227

Erasmus, D.
179, 194, 229, 243, 257, 268, 277, 335, 344

Euthymius Zigabenus
109, 110, 145, 243, 302, 387

Faber Stapulensis
229

Fiebig, P.
170, 205, 245, 262, 265, 270, 272, 276, 285, 287, 291, 307, 317, 358

Fitzmyer, J. A.
91, 99, 100, 249, 252, 254, 256, 307, 314

Flusser, D.
20, 54, 55, 184, 190, 226, 230, 285

France, R. T.
74, 101, 103, 117, 120

Frankemölle, H.
1, 2, 3, 13, 14, 45, 49, 53, 69, 70, 79, 81, 84, 89, 90, 95, 96, 103, 131, 134, 143, 184, 186, 230, 310, 372, 389

Gadamer, H. G.
61–63

Gaechter, P.
1, 3, 7, 13, 19, 69, 101, 106, 155, 163, 194

Gerhardsson, B.
6, 7, 22, 147, 149, 152, 153, 296, 299, 307, 319

Gnilka, J.
3, 44, 57, 61, 69, 81, 84, 85, 92, 122, 135, 141, 214, 265, 314, 356,

Goulder, M. D.
5, 13, 14, 20, 25, 53

Grotius, H.
69, 98, 109, 110, 142, 209, 238, 243, 267, 268, 313, 380, 383

Grundmann, W.
6, 69, 85, 247, 339, 389

Guelich, R. A.
14, 170, 186, 190, 195, 211, 214, 226, 227, 232, 233, 234, 236, 254, 261, 262, 265, 272, 275, 328, 332, 333, 334, 342, 353, 370, 376, 378

Gundry, R. H.
4, 17, 25, 26, 29, 30, 31, 32, 36, 37, 38, 59, 103, 125, 127, 128, 141, 195, 205, 213, 214, 297, 370

Hagner, D. A.
45, 53, 54, 56, 59, 69, 84, 107, 122, 214, 218, 335, 356, 380

Hahn, F.
103, 144, 168, 193, 203, 204, 205, 210, 214, 308, 330, 375

Harnack, A.
144, 181, 184, 194, 210, 215, 222, 277, 307, 311, 322, 323, 397

Hengel, M.
59, 69, 101, 112, 115, 123, 170, 186, 187, 188, 206, 316, 380, 398

Hoffmann, P.
138, 147, 149, 156, 170, 176, 186, 236, 249, 250, 252, 253, 265, 275, 283, 297, 338, 339, 340, 343, 357, 367, 370, 374, 375

Hummel, R.
45, 53, 228, 253, 376

Ishodad of Merv
135

Jansen, C.
69, 243, 382

Jeremias, J.
24, 47, 79, 82, 121, 147, 152, 170, 182, 203, 204, 205, 214, 226, 227, 233, 235, 236, 240, 246, 249, 271, 272, 288, 296, 307, 309, 311, 314, 315, 316, 317, 321, 323, 325, 342, 354, 358, 363, 365, 370, 371, 392

Jülicher, A.
206, 330, 333, 334, 359, 385

Kierkegaard, S.
206, 347, 348

Kilpatrick, G. D.
6, 14, 21, 43, 45, 53, 57, 58, 126, 127, 136, 227, 297, 310

Kingsbury, J. D.
1, 3, 5, 9, 11, 56, 69, 120, 134, 156, 160, 169

Klostermann, E.
69, 191, 214, 235, 245, 296, 305, 340, 341, 370

Knabenbauer, J.
116, 136, 335

Köhler, W.-D.
47, 58, 86, 260, 271, 310, 312, 376

Krämer, M.
89, 92, 94, 170, 176, 203, 205

Krauss, S.
161, 166, 206, 252, 301, 303, 343, 358

Kürzinger, J.
1, 5, 45, 46, 47, 170, 172, 173

Lagrange, M. J.
7, 23, 40, 69, 81, 105, 381

Lapide, C.
193, 219, 229, 243, 302, 347, 350, 360, 381, 382, 387

Lapide, P.
170, 198, 211, 212, 215, 263, 274, 276, 285, 292

Légasse, S.
210, 215, 226, 374

Léon-Dufour, X.
1, 3, 9, 19, 89, 91, 94

Ljungman, H.
140, 142, 210, 218, 253

Lohfink, G.
165, 167, 170, 182, 249, 252, 258, 276, 307, 319,

Lohmeyer, E.
3, 69, 71, 135, 137, 157, 191, 195, 217, 234, 245, 253, 307, 310, 311, 314, 319, 323

Luomanen, P.
1, 45, 54, 210, 212, 223

Luther, M.
84, 86, 87, 93, 94, 98, 99, 109, 110, 111, 115, 122, 123, 145, 151, 154, 160, 164, 172, 179, 180, 181, 189, 192, 194, 195, 197, 202, 208, 209, 216, 220, 229, 238, 239, 240, 243, 244, 254, 255, 257, 258, 267, 269, 279, 291, 292, 306, 309, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 318, 320, 321, 323, 335, 342, 347, 365, 366, 373, 378, 381, 382, 383, 387

Luz, U.
1, 11, 12, 15, 17, 19, 21, 41, 43, 50, 64, 65, 69, 70, 135, 143, 146, 162, 171, 180, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 217, 218, 221, 222, 283

McConnell, R. S.
125, 128, 157, 210

Maldonat, J.
86, 87, 94, 99, 111, 136, 155, 193, 209, 229, 254, 266, 272, 280, 290, 302, 342, 370, 381, 383, 387

Manson, T. W.
21, 96, 213, 220, 262, 307

Marguerat, D.
139, 210, 212, 213, 218, 233, 234, 236, 370, 373, 374, 375, 377, 380, 385, 388

Mayordomo-Marín, M.
15, 61, 69, 70, 72, 74, 81, 85, 92, 96, 105, 112, 113

Meier, J. P.
45, 46, 50, 56, 58, 143, 141, 210, 211, 212, 214, 219, 226, 254, 264

Melanchthon, P.
97, 121, 195, 267, 363, 365, 387

Merklein, H.
214, 226, 228, 231, 234, 245, 249, 262, 270, 271, 275, 283, 287, 338, 340, 345, 362

Michaelis, W.
189, 197, 333, 370, 371, 372

Montefiore, C. G.
101, 105, 194, 196, 220, 237, 245, 263, 292, 314, 341, 359, 396

Neirynck, F.
1, 4, 5, 18, 20, 23, 24, 25, 26, 31, 39, 40, 133, 134, 156, 165

Nissen, A.
220, 273, 275, 276, 283, 285, 286, 362, 363

Nolan, B. M.
74, 84, 94, 119

Ogawa, A.
113, 158, 168, 182, 261, 389

Olshausen, H.
195, 229, 267, 387

Paulus, H. E. G.
100, 155, 244, 254, 302, 306

Pesch, R.
26, 74, 83, 89, 90, 91, 96, 101, 120, 249, 252, 253, 254, 327

Peter of Laodicea
194, 239, 302

Powell, M. A.
1, 3, 11, 101, 107, 111, 112, 184, 193, 194

Rabanus Maurus
95, 122, 136, 139, 145, 159, 199, 336

Ragaz, L.
172, 181, 194, 206, 238, 239

Reiser, M.
133, 137, 138, 139, 349

Reuter, H.-R.
170, 283, 286, 348, 364, 365, 397

Robinson, J. M.
4, 18, 41, 50, 147, 156, 338, 339, 340

Rothfuchs, W.
103, 125, 127, 128, 157

Saldarini, A. J.
45, 53, 54

Sand, A.
19, 49, 69, 195, 226, 227, 249, 254

Sato, M.
19, 89, 184, 187, 189, 228, 340, 351

Schlatter, A.
22, 23, 24, 25, 29, 30, 31, 34, 35, 43, 94, 95, 97, 113, 137, 191, 195, 213, 214, 228, 230, 235, 264, 306, 335, 352, 376, 380, 386

Schleiermacher, F.
87, 100, 197, 202, 279, 341, 346

Schnackenburg, R.
170, 172, 177, 184, 198, 203, 205, 254, 283, 290, 374, 397

Schneider, G.
171, 203, 204, 205, 308, 374, 375

Schniewind, J.
165, 168, 169, 195, 291

Schottroff L.
149, 192, 270, 273, 277, 285, 338, 341

Schulz, S.
149, 221, 255, 270, 283, 308, 314, 340, 342, 370, 375

Schürmann, H.
148, 186, 210, 212, 271, 308, 314, 330, 349, 353, 375

Schweizer, E.
21, 41, 45, 47, 49, 50, 51, 53, 84, 117, 126, 130, 141, 157, 168, 171, 182, 184, 187, 190, 195, 198, 210, 212, 214, 219, 220, 234, 235, 246, 252, 265, 271, 296, 297, 298, 300, 303, 331, 332, 344, 349, 370, 374, 377, 380

Sheret, B. S.
22, 24, 26, 29, 30

Soares-Prabhu, G. M.
24, 74, 104, 117, 118, 119, 125, 128, 129, 156, 157

Socinus, F.
172, 229

Soiron, T.
171, 177, 191, 205, 297

Stanton, G. N.
1, 2, 8, 13, 14, 15, 45, 47, 53, 54, 55, 69, 125, 129, 169, 171, 176

Stauffer, E.
105, 227, 242, 245, 288, 265

Stendahl, K.
14, 43, 53, 74, 75, 84, 93, 121, 127, 128, 156, 156, 261

Strabo, W.
94, 108, 119, 124, 134, 137, 138, 208, 240, 244, 266, 267, 280, 302, 303, 335, 383

Strecker, G.
11, 20, 31, 34, 45, 47, 51, 53, 75, 96, 113, 121, 125, 127, 130, 134, 138, 140, 141, 157, 163, 168, 169, 171, 184, 186, 191, 195, 199, 202, 207, 210, 213, 214, 215, 218, 221, 226, 227, 228, 234, 235, 236, 241, 242, 245, 261, 265, 270, 271, 290, 308, 309, 315, 344, 351, 356, 369, 376, 379, 392

Suggs, M. J.
226, 227, 371

Syreeni, K.
15, 171, 175, 296, 299, 301

Tannehill, R. C.
270, 274, 296, 301, 303, 338

Theissen, G.
56, 57, 75, 115, 147, 149, 270, 287, 345, 352

Theodore of Beza
243, 262, 266, 344

Theophylactus
121, 135, 93, 266, 302

Tholuck, A.
171, 172, 247, 316, 325, 344

Thomas Aquinas
99, 110, 136, 145, 159, 178, 179, 192, 201, 215, 217, 229, 235, 238, 239, 244, 255, 266, 267, 268, 279, 280, 291, 302, 304, 306, 316, 335, 336, 353, 360, 364, 383

Tilborg, S. van
31, 45, 56, 171, 241, 296, 297, 308

Tolstoy, L.
172, 181, 243, 268, 277, 278, 287, 291, 351,

Trilling, W.
45, 49, 53, 55, 89, 90, 136, 163, 167, 184, 188, 189, 208, 210, 213, 233, 236, 249, 252, 258, 341

Valdés, J. de
291

Vögtle, A.
69, 74, 75, 79, 81, 89, 90, 97, 98, 101, 119, 140, 141, 218, 270, 271, 274, 308

Walker, R.
45, 53, 137, 223

Walpot, P.
193, 216, 278, 351

Weder, H.
171, 188, 189, 194, 200, 210, 214, 221, 226, 231, 241, 264, 279, 286, 294, 334, 335, 336, 348, 350, 352, 353, 379, 383, 387, 395, 396

Weiss, J.
177, 191, 214, 220, 222, 293, 328, 341, 376, 393

Wesley, J.
172, 178, 192, 304, 335, 346

Wettstein, J. J.
107, 218, 262, 265, 272, 313, 335, 358, 364, 380, 386

Windisch, H.
171, 177, 184, 188, 189, 198, 222, 288, 393

Wolzogen, J. L.
95, 99, 107, 182, 209, 229, 266, 267, 382

Wrege, H. T.
18, 21, 171, 175, 227, 235, 250, 261, 265, 271, 284

Zahn, T.
59, 69, 167, 189, 191, 203, 228, 253, 254, 314, 365

Zeller, D.
89, 91, 147, 148, 149, 233, 234, 260, 263, 264, 270, 283, 296, 198, 305, 308, 315, 330, 331, 332, 338, 340, 341, 342, 349, 351, 357, 359, 370

Zinzendorf, N. L. Graf von
189, 200, 266, 313

Zwingli, H.
98, 99, 107, 121, 179, 192, 194, 195, 198, 206, 209, 239, 249, 255, 266, 267, 320, 336, 355, 366, 381, 382, 387
Luz, U. (2007). Matthew 1–7: a commentary on Matthew 1–7. (H. Koester, Hrsg.) (Rev. ed., S. 374–430). Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press.

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